exam 3 answers

exam 3 answers - B IO 1 2 2 - A E X A M 3 K e y 1.
 
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Unformatted text preview: B IO 1 2 2 - A E X A M 3 K e y 1.
 
 2.
 
 The control of the cell cycle involves all of the following EXCEPT 
 
 
 A. 
 roteins cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases are responsible P for advancing a cell through the phases.
 B. 
 2 checkpoint which checks for DNA damage, determines if all G of the DNA is replicated.
 C. 
 etaphase checkpoint which determines if all chromosomes are M attached to the spindle apparatus.
 D. 
 ytokinesis which involves the formation of cleavage furrow to C separate the cells.
 E. 
The restriction point determines if conditions are favorable for 
 cell division.
 
 
 
 
 
 3.
 
 Consider an organism whose karyotype shows it to have a total of 60 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be contained in the sperm of this organism? 
 
 
 A. 
 3
 2 B. 
 0
 3 C. 
 6
 4 D. 60
 
 E. 
90
 
 
 
 
 
 
 4.
 
 Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning sister chromatids? 
 
 
 A. 
 he formation of sister chromatids doubles the amount of DNA T in a cell.
 B. 
 ister chromatids consist of two identical copies of a single S homologue.
 C. 
 ister chromatids are held together at the centromere by S kinetochore proteins.
 D. Sister chromatids are formed during the S phase of the cell 
 cycle.
 E. 
 ister chromatids separate during telophase.
 
S 
 
 
 
 Place the following events of mitosis in the correct order. 
 I. Sister chromatids align on the metaphase plate.
 
 5.
 
 II. The cleavage furrow forms.
 III. The nuclear membrane breaks up.
 IV. Sister chromatids condense.
 V. Sister chromatids separate. 
 
 
 A. 
 , II, III, IV, V
 I B. 
 II, IV, I, V, II
 I C. 
 V, III, I, V, II
 I D. III, II, I, IV, V
 
 E. 
IV, I, III, V, II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 6.
 
 In a haploid dominant species 
 
 
 A. 
 he multicellular organism is diploid and the gametes are t haploid.
 B. 
 he multicellular organism is haploid and the gametes are t diploid.
 C. 
 iploid cells are produced by mitosis and haploid cells are d produced by meiosis.
 D. the zygote is haploid.
 
 E. 
 he multicellular organism is haploid and the zygote is diploid.
 
t 
 
 
 
 
 7.
 
 When a gamete that is lacking a sex chromosome due to nondisjunction has fused with a gamete carrying an X chromosome, this type of abnormality leads to the ________. 
 
 
 A. 
 riple X syndrome
 T B. 
 own Syndrome
 D C. 
 dward Syndrome
 E D. 
 he Turner syndrome
 t E. 
Klinefelter Syndrome
 
 
 
 
 
 What does not happen in the cytokinesis of plant cells? 
 
 
 A. 
 esicles friom the golgi apparatus move along the microtubules V and fuse form cell plate.
 B. 
 ell wall formes between the two daughter cells..
 C 
 
 
 8.
 
 C. 
 he two nuclei are segregated into separate daughter cells.
 T D. When the vesicles fuse, their membranes contribute to the 
 formation of plasma membrane on either side of the cell plate.
 E. 
 ormation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.
 
F 
 
 
 9.
 
 Put the following steps in the procedure for producing a karyotype in the correct order. 
 I. Cells are visualized under the microscope.
 II. Cells are stimulated to divide.
 III. Homologues are organized into sets by matching size and banding patterns.
 IV. The cells are exposed to a hypotonic solution.
 V. Cells are stained and placed on a microscope slide. 
 
 
 A. 
 , II, IV, V, III
 I B. 
 I, IV, V, I, III
 I C. 
 V, II, V, I, III
 I D. IV, V. II, I, III
 
 E. 
 I, IV, I, V, III
 
I 
 
 
 
 
 10.
 Which of the following mutations will not alter the amount of genetic material on the chromosomes? 
 
 
 A. 
 uplication
 d B. 
nversion
 i 
 
 
 In mitosis, the main difference between plant and animal cells is that 
 
 
 A. 
 lants do not undergo cytokinesis.
 p B. 
 lants produce a cell plate to segregate the daughter nuclei, p while animals form a cleavage furrow.
 C. 
 lants have a central vacuole, while animal cells do not.
 p D. plants produce a cell membrane in cytokinesis, while animals 
 form a cell plate.
 E. 
in plants, kinetochore microtubules shorten and draw chromosomes toward the poles; in animals, polar microtubules 
 lengthen to push chromatids apart.
 
 
 
 
 
 11.
 A person who inherits an extra X chromosome will have 
 
 
 A. Klinefelter syndrome.
 
 B. 
 urner syndrome.
 T C. 
 own syndrome.
 D D. Polyploid syndrome.
 
 E. 
Edward syndrome.
 
 
 12.
 Synaptonemal complexes form during 
 
 
 A. prophase of meiosis I.
 
 B. 
 rophase of meiosis II.
 p C. 
 rophase of meiosis I and meiosis II.
 p D. prometaphase of meiosis I.
 
 E. 
prometaphase of meiosis II.
 
 
 13.
 Sister chromatids separate during 
 
 
 A. 
 rophase of meiosis I.
 p B. 
 etaphase of meiosis I.
 m C. 
 etaphase of meiosis II.
 m D. prometaphase of meiosis I.
 
 E. a 
 
 naphase of meiosis II.
 
 14.
 Which of the following statements about cancer is FALSE? 
 
 
 A. 
 t is characterized by uncontrolled cell division.
 I B. 
 ver 1 million Americans are diagnosed with cancer each year.
 O C. 
 ost cancers involve genetic changes that are passed from M parent to offspring.
 D. At least 80% of all human cancers are related to exposure to 
 carcinogens.
 E. 
 
It is caused by an accumulation of mutations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 C. 
 imple translocation
 s D. deficiency
 
 E. 
inversion and simple translocation
 
 
 
 
 15.
 When cancer cells have the ability to migrate to other parts of the body, they are said to be 
 
 
 A. 
nvasive.
 i B. 
 enign.
 b C. 
 etastatic.
 m D. oncogenic.
 
 E. 
genetic.
 
 
 16.
 A mutation causes a gene to become overactive, contributing to uncontrolled cell growth. Which term best describes this gene? 
 
 
 A. 
 umor-suppressor gene
 t B. 
 ncogene
 o C. 
 pliced gene
 s D. alternatively spliced gene
 
 E. 
malignant gene
 
 
 17.
 Which of the following is most likely to occur when a tumorsuppressor gene is mutated? 
 
 
 A. 
 he tumor-suppressor gene may be overactive.
 T B. 
 he resulting tumor-suppressor protein would further suppress T cell proliferation.
 C. 
 he resulting tumor-suppressor protein would activate an T oncogene.
 D. 
 he tumor-suppressor gene and resulting protein may lose its T function and ability to suppress cell proliferation.
 E. 
None of the choices are possible.
 
 
 18.
 Should a genetic abnormality arise, ________ prevent a cell from progressing uncontrollably through the cell cycle. 
 
 
 A. 
 is-acting elements
 c B. 
 heckpoint proteins
 c C. 
 rans-acting elements
 t 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 19.
 Which protein directs apoptosis? 
 
 
 A. 
 rowth factor
 g B. 
 ncogene
 o C. 
 himeric gene
 c D. 
 aspase
 c E. 
transposase
 
 
 20.
 Which of the following is NOT a typical cellular change that occurs during lung cancer? 
 
 
 A. 
 ellular hyperplasia
 c B. 
oss of ciliated cells
 l C. 
 ellular displasia
 c D. 
 levated gas transport
 e E. 
increases in basal cell number and thickening of epithelium
 
 
 21.
 At what phase of the cell cycle does p53 halt cell division if it senses DNA damage? 
 
 
 A. 
 
 S B. 
 2
 G C. 
 
 M D. G0
 
 E. 
 1
 
G 
 22.
 Which of the following proteins is responsible for advancing a cell through the four phases of the cell cycle? 
 
 
 A. 
 aspases
 c B. 
 yclins
 c C. 
 laudins
 c D. endonucleases
 
 E. 
cofactors
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 D. growth factors
 
 E. 
Ras's
 
 
 
 23.
 Mating a purebred Labrador retriever to a purebred poodle to produce "Labradoodles" is an example of 
 
 
 A. 
 rue-breeding.
 t B. 
 ybridization.
 h C. 
 elf-fertilizing.
 s D. inbreeding.
 
 E. 
mixed breeding.
 
 
 24.
 Which of the following are incorrectly matched for a single-factor cross? 
 
 
 A. 
 generation / true breeding
 P B. 
 1 generation / monohybrid
 F C. 
 2 generation / result of F1 cross
 F D. F1 generation / result of P cross
 
 E. 
 2 generation / result of P cross
 
F 
 25.
 Polydactylism is a dominant trait that results in extra fingers and toes in humans. A polydactyl man marries a woman with 10 fingers and toes. They have a child that has a normal number of digits. The phenotype of the man's father is unknown, but his mother has a normal phenotype. What are the genotypes of the married couple? 
 
 
 A. 
 oman Dd, man dd
 w B. 
 oman DD, man dd
 w C. 
 oman dd, man DD
 w D. 
 oman dd, man Dd
 w E. 
 
woman DD, man Dd or dd
 
 26.
 In humans, having dimples in the cheeks is a dominant trait. If a child has dimples but only one of her parents does, what are the genotypes of her parents? 
 
 
 A. 
 ne parent dd, other parent DD
 O 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 27.
 A male is heterozygous for the trait that produces freckles on the skin, and he has freckles. If he marries a woman who is also heterozygous for freckles, ______ percent of their children will be freckled and __________ percent of their children will be heterozygous. 
 
 
 A. 
 00% freckled, 100% heterozygous
 1 B. 
 5% freckled, 50% heterozygous
 7 C. 
 5% freckled, 25% heterozygous
 7 D. 50% freckled, 50% heterozygous
 
 E. 
100% freckled, 75% heterozygous
 
 
 28.
 The single-factor crosses performed by Mendel support the observation that 
 
 
 A. the two alleles for a given gene are distributed randomly among 
 an individual's gametes.
 B. 
 he two alleles for a given gene are found within the same t gamete.
 C. 
f the recessive alleles for two different genes are on the same i chromosome, they will never be found within the same gamete.
 D. only the dominant alleles for a given trait are found in an 
 organism's gametes.
 E. 
if the dominant alleles for two different genes are on different 
 chromosomes, they will never be found within the same gamete.
 
 29.
 Which of the following accurately gives the distribution of phenotypes produced from a cross of purple dwarf pea plants that are heterozygous for flower color and plant height? 
 
 
 A. 63 purple dwarf; 28 purple tall; 27 white dwarf; 7 white tall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 B. 
 ne parent dd, other parent Dd
 o C. 
 ne parent Dd, other parent DD
 o D. one parent must be DD, the other parent could be either dd or 
 Dd
 E. 
 ne parent must be dd, the other parent could be either Dd or o 
 DD
 
 
 
 
 30.
 What features of meiosis allow for independent assortment of chromosomes? 
 
 
 A. random alignment of homologous sister chromatids on the 
 metaphase plate
 B. 
 eparation of sister chromatids
 s C. 
 eduction of chromosome number from diploid to haploid
 r D. both the separation of sister chromatids and the reduction of 
 chromosome number from diploid to haploid
 E. 
All of these features allow for the independent assortment of 
 chromosomes.
 
 31.
 The probability of a couple having either a boy or a girl is ½. However, many families have more boys than girls and VICE VERSA. Why is the observed ratio of boys to girls in typical families different than the predicted ratio? 
 
 
 A. 
 here is a large random sampling error due to the small size of T families.
 B. 
 here is a small random sampling error due to the small size of T families.
 C. 
 umans are more heterozygous than is predicted by random H sampling.
 D. The sex of each child is determined independently.
 
 E. 
 wo of the answers are correct. There is a large random T sampling error due to the small size of human families and the 
 sex of each child is determined independently.
 
 32.
 A nearsighted woman (Nn) with hazel eyes (Hh) marries a man with normal vision and hazel eyes (Hh). Their three children all have blue eyes and normal vision. What is the probability that their next child will have blue eyes and be nearsighted? 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 B. 
 32 purple dwarf; 138 white tall
 1 C. 
 4 purple dwarf; 6 white tall
 5 D. 100% purple dwarf
 
 E. 
27 purple dwarf; 28 purple tall; 31 white dwarf; 29 white tall
 
 
 
 
 
 33.
 Which of the following phrases INCORRECTLY finishes this statement? A genetic disease that causes death in infancy and has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern can persist in a population because 
 
 
 A. 
t can be passed on to the next generation by a heterozygous i carrier.
 B. 
 he deleterious effects of the disease may not occur until after t reproductive age.
 C. 
f both parents are carriers, they have a 50% chance of having i normal children.
 D. only homozygotes for the abnormal allele will have the disease.
 
 E. 
individuals with one abnormal allele do not show symptoms of 
 the disease.
 
 34.
 A woman comes to your genetic counseling center because she knows that Huntington disease occurs in members of her family. Her paternal grandfather was afflicted, but so far her father shows no symptoms. Her two great-great grandmothers on her father's side were healthy well into their 90s, and one of her great-great grandfathers died of unknown causes at 45. Testing for Huntington disease is extremely expensive, but she is concerned that she may fall victim to this disease and wants to plan her life accordingly. After examining her pedigree you advise her to 
 
 
 A. 
 ot get tested because there is no possibility that she is n homozygous.
 B. 
 ot get tested because only males in her family get the disease.
 n C. 
 et tested because her father could be a carrier.
 g D. not get tested because her father is only a carrier and it is very 
 unlikely her mother is a carrier.
 E. 
not get tested because her 40-year-old father shows no 
 symptoms.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 A. 
 /4
 1 B. 
 /2
 1 C. 
 /8
 3 D. 1/8
 
 E. 
5/8
 
 
 
 
 
 
 35.
 For mechanisms of sex determination, which of the following is incorrectly paired? 
 
 
 A. 
 -Y, cow
 X B. 
 -O, grasshopper
 X C. 
 Z-ZW, bluebird
 Z D. 
 n-2n, pea plant
 1 E. 
high temperature-low temperature, alligator
 
 
 36.
 In mammals, males are ________ and females are _______. 
 
 
 A. 
 eterozygous, homozygous
 h B. 
 emizygous, homozygous
 h C. 
 omozygous, heterozygous
 h D. hemizygous, heterozygous
 
 E. 
heterozygous, hemizygous
 
 
 37.
 Color blindness is a recessive X-linked trait. A normal couple has a color-blind child. Who else in this family is probably color blind? 
 
 
 A. the child's maternal grandfather
 
 B. 
 he child's maternal grandmother
 t C. 
 he child's paternal grandfather
 t D. the child's paternal grandmother
 
 E. 
the child's maternal grandmother or grandfather
 
 
 38.
 You discover a new sunflower that has blue flowers instead of yellow. When you cross this blue variety with a common yellow variety you get blue and yellow speckled flowers. What type of inheritance pattern does this gene exhibit? 
 
 
 A. 
ncomplete dominance
 i B. 
 odominance
 c C. 
 imple Mendelian inheritance
 s D. either incomplete dominance or codominance
 
 E. 
sex-influenced dominance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 39.
 When a single-gene mutation can have phenotypic effects at multiple stages of development, it is 
 
 
 A. pleiotropic.
 
 B. 
ncompletely dominant.
 i C. 
 ecessive.
 r D. causing a disease.
 
 E. 
codominant.
 
 
 40.
 If a pink snapdragon is self-fertilized, the offspring are red, pink, or white. What type of inheritance pattern does flower color exhibit in this example? 
 
 
 A. 
 odominance
 c B. 
ncomplete dominance
 i C. 
 ominance
 d D. incomplete recessive
 
 E. 
recessive
 
 
 41.
 A person who is homozygous for a mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene 
 
 
 A. can lead a normal life if the environment is controlled.
 
 B. 
 annot give blood.
 c C. 
 ill always develop mental retardation in early infancy.
 w D. will require phenylalanine supplements throughout life.
 
 E. 
Two statements are correct. They can lead a normal life if the 
 environment is controlled by taking phenylalanine supplements.
 
 42.
 _________ occurs when 50% of a protein produces a different phenotype than that produced by 100% or 0% of the protein. 
 
 
 A. Incomplete dominance
 
 B. 
 ecessive inheritance
 R C. 
 odominance
 C D. Loss of function mutation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 E. 
Hybridization
 
 
 43.
 A couple has five sons. What is the probability that their next child will be a girl? 
 
 
 A. 
 %
 0 B. 
 5%
 2 C. 
 0%
 5 D. 75%
 
 E. 
100%
 
 
 44.
 Which of the following reflects a primary difference between transmission and scanning electron microscopy? 
 
 
 A. 
 ransmission electron microscopy has high resolution, but T scanning electron microscopy does not.
 B. 
 ransmission electron microscopy shows contrast, but scanning T electron microscopy does not.
 C. 
 ransmission electron microscopy has much higher T magnification than scanning electron microscopy.
 D. 
 ransmission electron microscopy shows two-dimensional T ultrastructure, while the scanning electron microscopy shows three-dimensional structure.
 E. 
Transmission electron microscopy uses light as an illumination source, while scanning electron microscopy uses electron 
 beams as an illumination source.
 
 45.
 Prokaryotes 
 
 
 A. lack a true nucleus.
 
 B. 
ack true DNA.
 l C. 
 se the cell membrane rather than ribosomes for making u proteins.
 D. contain numerous organelles.
 
 E. 
are relatively benign cells incapable of harming organisms.
 
 
 46.
 What do synaptic signaling and paracrine signaling have in common? 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 A. 
 ells release a signal that affects it and neighboring cells.
 C B. 
 ells release a signal that affects cells at long distances.
 C C. 
 ells release a signal through gap junctions to affect C neighboring cells.
 D. Cells bind a membrane bound signal on a neighboring cell.
 
 E. C 
 
 ells release a signal that affects neighboring cells.
 
 
 
 
 B lo o m s L e v e l: R e m e m b e r 
 B ro o k e r - C h a p te r 0 9 # 1 0 
 F ig u r e : 9 .0 3 
 S e c t io n : 9 .0 1 
 T o p ic : C e lls 
 
 
 47.
 The equation, C6H12O6 + 6O2 →6CO2 + 6H2O (ATP + Heat), describes a reaction that 
 
 
 A. 
s endergonic.
 i B. 
 equires energy.
 r C. 
 ccurs in plants only.
 o D. 
s exergonic.
 i E. 
is anabolic.
 
 
 48.
 Which of the following is NOT a process of aerobic respiration? 
 
 
 A. 
 itric acid cycle
 c B. 
 lycolysis
 g C. 
 cetyl CoA formation
 a D. oxidative phosphorylation
 
 E. 
actate fermentation
 
l 
 49.
 Which of the following statements would be most INCORRECT if there were a sudden decline in plants on Earth? 
 
 
 A. 
 xygen levels in the environment might decline.
 O B. 
 he rate of photosynthesis in existing plants would decline.
 T C. 
 here would be less organic matter on Earth.
 T D. A decline in the population of herbivores would likely occur.
 
 E. 
Heterotrophic organisms would be significantly impacted.
 
 
 50.
 Which of the following statements about chlorophyll is correct? 
 
 
 A. 
 t appears green because it absorbs light in the green light I spectrum.
 B. 
 t reflects all colors in the light spectrum except green.
 I C. 
 t reflects light in the green light spectrum.
 I D. It reflects high-energy electrons.
 
 E. 
All of the choices are correct.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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