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study guide final - Pr imar y – amino acid sequence det...

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Unformatted text preview: Pr imar y – amino acid sequence, det er mined by genes Quat er nar y – two or more polypeptides for m a functional prot ein Ter tiar y – 3D Secondar y – fold int o spiral or pleats Cyt oplasm – metabolism sit e Glycocalyx – traps wat er, protection, gelatinous cover Ribosomes – protein synthesis, polypeptides Flagella - locomation Pili - attachment Cell wall – suppor t and protection Nucleiod – genetic mater ial Plasma membrane - bar r ier Mit ochondr ion – ATP synthesis – semiautonomous Plasma membrane – bar r ier, select ive per meable, cell signaling with recept ros, cell adhesion Per ioxisome – H2O2 & har mful molecules decomp (catalase) degrade macromolecules – acid hydrolases break down prot eins, carbs, lipids, nucleic acids – aut ophagy (recycle through endocyt osis) Golgi apparat us – processing, sor ting, secretion of prot eins Smooth ER – det ox, carb met abolism, Ca2+ regulation, synthesis/mod of lipids Nucleolus – r ibosome assembly Nuclear envelope – double membrane skelet on – prot ein filaments (microtubules, int er mediate, actin –mot or prot eins in actin/microtubules – f lagella or cilia Cyt osol – coordinat es metabolic process (catabolism vs anabolism) Chromatin – DNA and protein Rough ER – prot ein sor t ing, secretion Centrosome – microtubules, centr ioles Chloroplasts - semiaut onomous Central vacuole – storage, space filling (turgor pressure – expansion and growth) SRP released, translation resumes – polypep is threaded into a channel Polypeptide synthesized & released ER signal cleaved by signal peptidase SRP binds to recept or SRP binds to ER signal sequence, pauses translation Phosphat e removed by phosphatase Act ivated bonds t o glycerol phosphat e and inser ted into leaf let by acyl transferase Fatty acids activat ed by CoA att achment Cleavage Phase Energy investment phase Energy Liberation Phase ow of H+ down electrochemical gradient int o mat r ix through ATP synthase causes synthesis of ATP Cyt ochrome c to cyt ochome oxidase – electrons transfer red t o oxygen, wat er produced cytrochrome b-c1 – cytrochrome c (some electrons used to pump H+ int o int er membrane space) DH2 oxidized t o get high energy electrons – go to succint e reductase then ubiquinone gy electrons – some energy har nessed to pump H+ int o int ermembrane space – rest are transfer red to ubiquinone Mesophyll – where phot osynthesis occurs - leaves Stroma – f luid regions filling btw membrane – calvin cycle takes place Granum – stack of thylakoids Thylakoid – contains pigment molecules – light reactions take place Noncyclic f low – linear produces equal amounts of ATP and NADPH olecules of PSI I . Electrons move down ETC to more electroneg at oms producing a H+ electrochemical gradient e d t o pigment P680 o make NADPH ping H+ across thylakoid membrane, synthesis of NADPH – used for ATP sythase – Qb – cyt ochrome complex – Pc – PS1. Produces a H+ electrochemical gradient to make ATP via ATP synthase– Qb – cyt ochrome complex – Pc – PS1....
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study guide final - Pr imar y – amino acid sequence det...

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