Quiz 2 - Feb 9: The Caretaking Package Terms: Hominoid-...

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Feb 9: The Caretaking Package Terms: Hominoid- Includes humans and apes Hominid- category that includes humans only Pongid- category that includes apes only Australopithecine- Relevant human ancestor which was definitely bipedal Bipedalism- defined by walking upright on two legs Encephalization- process of growth and increase in complexity of the brain; especially important in human evolution because size of the brain dramatically increases with the Homo genus which makes childbirth progressively more difficult. Primates have a high degree of encephalization, but along the human line, the degree is greater. Coevolution- When the evolutionary trajectories of certain behaviors become inextricably intertwined and changes in one behavioral strategy affects the other. This is important in human childcare because the adults’ methods in childcare coevolved with the dependency of the infant and the infants’ physical signals to the parents. Altricial- “requiring nourishment”; describes pattern of growth and development altricial infants are incapable of moving around on their own or feeding selves; helpless Precoccial – young are born relatively mature and are somewhat mobile and able to take care of themselves. Caretaking package- the entirety of all parenting behaviors regarding all aspects of the child’s life from feeding to sleep and etc; because parenting is not defined by just one behavior. Key Concepts: Current human infant starts with the evolution of bipedalism- bipedalism is evident in pelvis which requires us to look back at our ape-like ancestors Pelvis Evolution- Relation to birth and bipedalism o Chimp Pelvis Overall shape is long, narrow, more compact Sacrum is straight, rather than curving inward as in humans though birth canal is small, allows for birth canal to be relatively obstruction free and straight with respect to alignment of uterus and opening to outside. Designed for and by quadrapedal motility Opening is a large oval and relative to human head size, infant chimp’s head is much smaller and leaves plenty of room. Baby doesn’t have to rotate (?) and is born facing forward and mother can guide the baby out of the birth canal Much less difficult birth o Human Pelvis Difficult birth
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Pelvis like bowl for the guts Illum is short and broad Sacrum is curved inward, so there isn’t a straight shot out of the birth canal since the baby has to get past this Baby has to rotate a few times to get out of the birth canal properly; need assistance to help get baby out because baby faces backwards Birth canal is less oval and more rounded due to short and broad pelvis and the curved sacrum Birth canal opening is much larger Baby’s head is much larger and takes up most of the birth canal very painful birth Pelvis has attachments for several muscles used in locomotion but mainly in balance Gluteus muscles keep us from falling forward, femur
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2010 for the course ANTHR 3305 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Quiz 2 - Feb 9: The Caretaking Package Terms: Hominoid-...

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