exam4 - Chapter 8: Labeling or Social Reaction Theories of...

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Chapter 8: Labeling or Social Reaction Theories of Crime Introduction: 1) What is the “normative view” of law? (also refered to as positivism) The assumption that that something is inherently bad about behaviors that are defined as crime by the criminal law and that there is agreement/consensus in society about the inappropriateness of those behaviors. (norms and rules are given and taken for granted and that only those behaviors that everyone agrees on are subject to punishment and social blame). The law reflects social agreement with regards to acts that should be declared wrong. Question: why do some people fail to conform their conduct to behavior that everyone agrees is bad? (why does someone chooses to be deviant) 2) Who are moral crusaders or moral entrepreneurs? Give an example of a moral entrepreneur? Becker *Moral Crusaders: A contest/struggle between morally upright and morally degenerate. * Moral Entrepreneur: someone that organizes, directs or creates interests in the movement to get a given behavior declared deviant or criminal/create concern over the alleged behavior to convince people to “do something about it”. ex: The women from WCTU demonstrated the evils of alcohol in the 1990’s by showing familiar examples to the crowd like: lost jobs, broken families, abuse and successfully made the US make alcohol illegal. Deviance is frequently “created” when moral crusades led by moral entrepreneurs have certain behaviors that were once tolerated, made into criminal acts. (this doesn’t mean that anyone can be a crusade, you must have the “rule-making” capacity) 3) Rules are more likely to be applied to whom? To the powerless. Rules are created by the powerful when threatened or offended by the actions of the powerless and attempts to have their actions a given designation “criminal”. 4) What is the “status characteristics hypothesis”? The hypothesis that one is to be successfully labeled depends on one’s personal attitudes (sex, ethnicity, social status). Labeling depends in part on what one has done and also on who that person is. The infraction is more severe if the person who committed lacks the resources to resist the reaction or because you fit the stereotype of someone who “will do it”. 5) What are “informal attempts at labeling”? Labels applied by individual persons or agencies who do not have a formal social control function (parents, friends, employers, neighbors). 6) What is a “status degradation ceremony”? paper by harold garfinkel Labeling events after the status of a person shifts (downward or degraded) from nondeviant to deviant. These ceremonies are more effective in changing the status when they are formal (court/public trial). analogous to Matza’s 7) Are informal sanctions or formal sanctions more important? Why? According to Matsueda, informal sanctions are more important that formal because they are
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exam4 - Chapter 8: Labeling or Social Reaction Theories of...

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