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RelativeResourceManager

# RelativeResourceManager - Chem 6B Equation Sheet(Exam 3 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 3) 1 Prof. Crowell Chem 6B Exam 3 Equation Sheet: Ideal gas law: PV nRT = . Heat is the transfer of energy as a result of a temperature difference. Exothermic processes release heat & Endothermic processes absorb heat. Definition of entropy: rev q S T ∆ = ∆ = ∆ = ∆ = ; Change in the surroundings' entropy: sys surr H S T −∆ −∆ −∆ −∆ ∆ = ∆ = ∆ = ∆ = 1 ( ) ; Spontaneous if 0 or sys sys univ sys surr sys sys sys univ sys H G S S S S H T S S G T T T ∆ − ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ − ∆ − ∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ − = ∆ − ∆ = ∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ − = ∆ − ∆ = ∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ − = ∆ − ∆ = ∆ = ∆ + ∆ = ∆ − = ∆ − ∆ = ⇒ ∆ > ∆ < ∆ > ∆ < ∆ > ∆ < ∆ > ∆ < ∆ S total = ∆ S system + ∆ S surr = ∆ S sys − ∆ H sys / T; Reversible Processes: ∆ S total = 0; Irreversible Processes: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ S total > 0; ∆ S total ≥ 0 for an isolated system; Classius Inequality: ∆ S total ≥ q / T The standard state free energy of formation is exactly parallel to ∆ H f ° , with ∆ G f ° and ∆ H f ° zero for elements in their standard state: ∆ G f ° = G ° substance- Σ n E G ° elements and ∆ G rxn ° = Σ Σ Σ Σ n P ∆ G f ° products- Σ n R ∆ G f ° reactants ; ∆ H rxn ° = Σ Σ Σ Σ n P ∆ H f ° products- Σ n R ∆ H f ° reactants ∆ S rxn ° = Σ Σ Σ Σ n P S ° products- Σ n R S ° reactants ; ; ; ; ∆ G rxn ° = ∆ H rxn °- T ∆ S rxn ° Collision rate theory: k=rate constant = collision efficiency: k = z p exp {-E a / RT} = A exp {-E a / RT} Where: z = collision frequency, p = steric factor (molecular orientation), A = z p, E a = activation energy (reaction barrier), R = gas constant, T = temperature, At equilibrium: rate forward = rate reverse, or k f [reactants] = k r [products]. We define the equilibrium constant K as: [products] K [reactants] f r k k = = = = = = = = For the rxn: aA (g) + bB (s) + cC (s) ↔ dD (g) + eE (g) the Law of Mass Action is: [D (g)] [E (g)] [A (g)] d e a K = For: aA (aq) + sS (liq) ↔ xX + (aq) + yY- (aq) the Law of Mass Action is [X (aq)] [Y (aq)] [A (aq)] x y a K + − + − + − + − = For aA (g) + bB (g) ↔ cC (g) + dD (g) [C (g)] [D (g)] [A (g)] [B(g)] c d c a b K = ; C D A B P P P P c d p a b K = ; RTc P gas n p c K K ∆ ° = ° ∆ n gas = (c+d) – (a + b) = # moles of (products – reactants); P A = RT [ n A / V ] Activities: For the reaction aA (g) + bB (g) ↔ cC (g) + dD (g) , c d C D a b A B a a K a a = The activities are defined depending on the medium: For an ideal gas: a J = P J / P J ° , where P J ° is the pressure of the gas in its standard state (1 bar). Thus for an ideal gas, a J = P J . For a solute in a dilute solution: a J = [J] / [J] ° , where [J]...
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RelativeResourceManager - Chem 6B Equation Sheet(Exam 3 1...

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