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RelativeResourceManager - Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 3) 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 3) 1 Prof. Crowell Chem 6B Exam 3 Equation Sheet: Ideal gas law: PV nRT = . Heat is the transfer of energy as a result of a temperature difference. Exothermic processes release heat & Endothermic processes absorb heat. Definition of entropy: rev q S T = = = = ; Change in the surroundings' entropy: sys surr H S T = = = = 1 ( ) ; Spontaneous if 0 or sys sys univ sys surr sys sys sys univ sys H G S S S S H T S S G T T T = + = = = = + = = = = + = = = = + = = = > < > < > < > < S total = S system + S surr = S sys H sys / T; Reversible Processes: S total = 0; Irreversible Processes: S total > 0; S total 0 for an isolated system; Classius Inequality: S total q / T The standard state free energy of formation is exactly parallel to H f , with G f and H f zero for elements in their standard state: G f = G substance- n E G elements and G rxn = n P G f products- n R G f reactants ; H rxn = n P H f products- n R H f reactants S rxn = n P S products- n R S reactants ; ; ; ; G rxn = H rxn - T S rxn Collision rate theory: k=rate constant = collision efficiency: k = z p exp {-E a / RT} = A exp {-E a / RT} Where: z = collision frequency, p = steric factor (molecular orientation), A = z p, E a = activation energy (reaction barrier), R = gas constant, T = temperature, At equilibrium: rate forward = rate reverse, or k f [reactants] = k r [products]. We define the equilibrium constant K as: [products] K [reactants] f r k k = = = = = = = = For the rxn: aA (g) + bB (s) + cC (s) dD (g) + eE (g) the Law of Mass Action is: [D (g)] [E (g)] [A (g)] d e a K = For: aA (aq) + sS (liq) xX + (aq) + yY- (aq) the Law of Mass Action is [X (aq)] [Y (aq)] [A (aq)] x y a K + + + + = For aA (g) + bB (g) cC (g) + dD (g) [C (g)] [D (g)] [A (g)] [B(g)] c d c a b K = ; C D A B P P P P c d p a b K = ; RTc P gas n p c K K = n gas = (c+d) (a + b) = # moles of (products reactants); P A = RT [ n A / V ] Activities: For the reaction aA (g) + bB (g) cC (g) + dD (g) , c d C D a b A B a a K a a = The activities are defined depending on the medium: For an ideal gas: a J = P J / P J , where P J is the pressure of the gas in its standard state (1 bar). Thus for an ideal gas, a J = P J . For a solute in a dilute solution: a J = [J] / [J] , where [J]...
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2010 for the course CHEM 6B taught by Professor Crowell during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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RelativeResourceManager - Chem 6B Equation Sheet (Exam 3) 1...

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