What_to_study_for_the_First_Mid

What_to_study_for_the_First_Mid - What to study for the...

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What to study for the First Mid-Term Exam : Not all of these topics will appear on the exam, but you may be assured that all questions will derive from these topics Hydrocarbons: structures (including isomers), bonding, hybridization and reactions (you are not responsible for nomenclature) alkanes C n H 2n+2 (cycloalkeanes C n H 2n ) - sp 3 hybridization - tetrahedral contains all single bonds ( all sigma bonds) alkenes C n H 2n (cycloalkenes C n H 2n-2 ) this formula works for 1 double bond only - sp 2 hybridization - trigonal planar (contains one double bond, which comes from one sigma bonds and one pi bond) alkynes C n H 2n-2 this formula works for 1 triple bond only - sp hybridization - linear (contains one triple bond, which comes from one sigma bonds and two pi bond) If a question asks you to write down isomers for a given formula. Here are some tips. - keep in mind that the structure you might be asked may contain more than 1 double or triple bonds, so that the formulas above might not always work. -e.g. write 4 isomers of C 4 H 6 some of you might easily see that this formula corresponds an alkyne (C n H 2n-2 ), however there is a general way to think of it. 1) think of the saturated formula of C 4 , which is C 4 H 10 2) find the different no. of H atoms of the given formula and the saturated formula. In this case, the difference is 4. Now, - if you want to write isomers containing triple bonds, the number need to be able to be divided by 4. The result from dividing tells you how many triple bonds can be present in the molecule. In this case you can write isomers containing 1 triple bond. -if you want to write isomers containing double bonds or rings, you divide the no. by 2. The result tells you how many double bonds or rings or both you can have from this formula. In this case, the result is 2. Therefore, you might -write isomers containing 2 double bonds -write isomers containing 1 double bonds 1 ring
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What_to_study_for_the_First_Mid - What to study for the...

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