chap 7 - chapter seven Collaborative systems Introduction...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
chapter seven Collaborative systems Introduction: collaboration as a category Most of the systems discussed thus far have been the products of deliberate and centrally controlled development efforts. There was an identifiable client or customer (singular or plural), clearly identifiable builders, and users. Client, in the traditional sense, means the person or organization who spon- sors the architect and who has the resources and authority to construct the system of interest. The role of the architect existed, even if it was hard to trace to a particular individual or organization. The system was the result of deliberate value judgment by the client and existed under the control of the client. However, many systems are not under central control, either in their conception, their development, or their operation. The Internet is the canonical example, but many others exist, including electrical power sys- tems, multinational defense systems, joint military operations, and intelli- gent transportation systems. These systems are all collaborative in the sense that they are assembled and operate through the voluntary choices of the participants, not through the dictates of an individual client. These systems are built and operated only through a collaborative process. A problem in this area is the lack of standard terminology for categories of system. Any system is an assemblage of elements that possesses capabil- ities not possessed by an element. This is just saying that a system possesses emergent properties, indeed that possessing emergent properties is the defin- ing characteristic of a system. A microwave oven, a laptop computer, and the Internet are all systems, but each can have radically different problems in design and development. This chapter discusses systems distinguished by the voluntary nature of the systems assembly and operation. Examples of systems in this category include most intelligent transport systems, 1 military C4I and Integrated Bat- tlespace, 2 and partially autonomous flexible manufacturing systems. 3 The arguments here apply to most of what are often referred to as systems-of- systems, a term some readers may prefer. One of the authors (Maier) has discussed the contrast between the concepts elsewhere. 4 '2000 CRC Press LLC
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
What exactly is a collaborative system? In this chapter a system is a “collaborative system” when its components: 1. Fulfill valid purposes in their own right, and continue to operate to fulfill those purposes if disassembled from the overall system 2. Are managed (at least in part) for their own purposes rather than the purposes of the whole; the component systems are separately ac- quired and integrated but maintain a continuing operational existence independent of the collaborative system Misclassification as a “conventional” system vs. a collaborative system (or vice versa) leads to serious problems. Especially important is a failure to architect for robust collaboration when direct control is impossible or inad- visable. This can arise when the developers believe they have greater control
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '08
  • Dr.JeffreyV.Nickerson
  • International Organization for Standardization, Internet Engineering Task Force, Standards organization, CRC Press LLC

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern