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Attention (student)

Attention (student) - A ttention A Types of Attention 1 the...

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Attention A. Types of “Attention” 1. “the c oncentration _________ of mental effort on sensory or mental events” (Solso, 1988) a. May be conscious or unconscious b. Deficient in those afflicted with ADHD ______ B. Processes which enhance encoding of, and memory for, information 1. Conscious or unconscious C. D isengaging __________ from one stimulus in order to engage another D. Separating a signal from background “n____” (Anderson, 1990) E. Visually f oveating _______ on a stimulus F. O rienting _________ toward a stimulus
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Visual Attention ntegration 1. To the side, we see a pink triangle 2. However, we do not perceive its pinkness separately from its shape H. (1980) proposed that a significant function of attention is to: 1. To bind perceptual features into coherent object representations— 2. take information about dimension & integrate it at a single location ( S potlight analogy ) I. Two stages of visual attention: 1. P reattentive : automatically register individual features of objects [Pop-out effects] 2. I ntegration : “g lue ” features together into a unified percept J. Evidence: 1. Easier to search for a single feature (circle) against different features (triangles), or pink against green objects. 2. But difficult to search for a c onjunction of the two (green + circle).
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3. I llusory conjunctions : when overloaded, people confuse mixture of traits (e.g., report seeing a “red X” when what they really saw was a blue x next to a red T). 4. Pop-out Effect 5. Find Red + Q K. Further evidence that visual qualities are linked by l ocation : 1. Snyder (1972) asked Ss to report identity of a letter in a given color (e.g., red). Ss would often report another letter n earby the target red letter. 2. Ss faster to detect T in an array when it appeared in (or near) to a cue (e.g., a box). (Downing & Pinker, 1985)
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3. Simon Effect : tendency for people to be faster & more accurate at responding to stimuli that occur in same general l ocation as a previous response. L. Is Visual Attention S pace - or O bject -Based? 1. C hange blindness : Fail to detect objects that change or disappear in an array 2. Hemispatial neglect patients & barbell stimulus ( , 1999) 3. Neisser & Becklen (1975) study on simultaneous videos of games http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcjnJ1B7N0E 4. D orsal Simultagnosia “Recognize” only one item in an array M. H emispatial Neglect
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1. Patients with unilateral brain damage to the R ight inferior parietal lobe and/or t emporal/parietal junction often ignore the opposite side of space. a. Can occur to R or L hemisphere, but more common on right ____ b. VF that is c ontralateral to lesion is ignored; i psalateral VF is attended to 2. They will draw only one side of a clock face, eat from only one side of the plate, make up only half of their face. Eye Movements in a visual search task (detect the
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Attention (student) - A ttention A Types of Attention 1 the...

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