Attention F09 - Attention Types of Attention the...

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Attention
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Types of “Attention” “the concentration of mental effort on sensory or mental events” (Solso, 1988) May be conscious or unconscious Deficient in those afflicted with ADHD
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Processes which enhance encoding of, and memory for, information Conscious or unconscious Disengaging from one stimulus in order to engage another
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Separating a signal from background “noise” (Anderson, 1990) Visually foveating on a stimulus Orienting toward a stimulus
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I. Visual Attention A. Attention & Integration 1. To the side, we see a pink diamond However, we do not perceive its pinkness separately from its shape
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2. Treisman & Gelade (1980) proposed that a significant function of attention is to bind perceptual features into coherent object representations— to take information about dimension & integrate it at a single location ( Spotlight analogy )
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.3. Two stages of visual attention : a. Preattentive : automatically register individual features of objects [Pop-out effects] b. Integration : “glue” features together into a unified percept
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4. Evidence : a. Easier to search for a single feature (circle) against different features (triangles), or pink against green objects. But difficult to search for a conjunction of the two (green + circle).
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b. Illusory conjunctions : when overloaded, people confuse mixture of traits (e.g., report seeing a “red X” when what they really saw was a blue X next to a red T).
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Pop-out Effect
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Find Red + Q
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5. Further evidence that visual qualities are linked by location : a. Snyder (1972) asked Ss to report identity of a letter in a given color (e.g., red). Ss would often report another letter nearby the target red letter. b. Ss faster to detect T in an array when it appeared in (or near) to a cue (e.g., a box). (Downing & Pinker, 1985)
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c. Simon Effect : tendency for people to be faster & more accurate at responding to stimuli that occur in same general location as a previous response.
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6. Is Visual Attention Space- or Object-Based? a. Change blindness : Fail to detect objects that change or disappear in an array b. Hemispatial neglect patients & barbell stimulus (Behrmann & Tipper, 1999)
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c. Neisser & Becklen (1975) study on simultaneous videos of games http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcjnJ1B7N0E
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d. Dorsal simultagnosia : “Recognize” only one item in an array
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B. Hemispatial Neglect
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1. Patients with unilateral brain damage to the Right inferior parietal lobe and/or temporal/parietal junction often ignore the opposite side of space. Can occur to R or L hemisphere, but more common on R VF that is contralateral to lesion is ignored; ipsalateral VF is attended to
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2. They will draw only one side of a clock face, eat from only one side of the plate, make up only half of their face.
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Eye Movements in a visual search task (detect the Ts among the Ls):
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3. Representational Neglect : the same deficit appears in imagery (e.g., Oliver Sacks’ patient; Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978).
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4. Other accompanying deficits (Parton & Husain, 2004):
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Attention F09 - Attention Types of Attention the...

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