Encoding & Retrieval F09

Encoding & Retrieval F09 - LTM: Encoding &...

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LTM: I. Levels of Processing Theory Lockhart, 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975) A. Claims 1. There are levels of analysis within encoding, which vary from “shallow” to “deep.” 2. “Deep,” or semantic processing leads to better memory. 3. Repetition of material AND intention to learn are insufficient to encourage LTM; it is the quality of the processing that matters: a. Maintenance rehearsal : repetition of information as proposed by Shiffrin & Atkinson’s REHEARSAL, which does NOT lead to long-term retention b. Elaborative rehearsal : Semantic processing of information, which leads to long-term retention
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4. Information decays based on the quality of its encoding (rather than on which “structure” of memory in which it is being stored) Distinction between STM and LTM is not as clearcut as the Multistore (or Modal) Model claims. B. Stages of Encoding 1. Structural Processing : physical features of a stimulus: a. Visual stimuli : in capital or small case letters? Curved or angular? b. Auditory stimuli : male or female voice? Loud or soft? Music or a spoken stimulus? 2. Phonemic/Phonological or Orthographic Processing : a. Visual stimuli (if words): Does the word contain a particular letter? [”Orthographic” refers to writing]
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b. Auditory stimuli : Does the word contain a particular sound, such as a /p/? Does the word rhyme with some other word? 3. Syntactic Processing : includes the grammatical class of a word--is it a Noun? Verb? Adjective? Article? 4. Semantic Processing : coding based on the meaning of a stimulus--Does the word depict a kind of vehicle? Is it associated with Vacations? C. Hyde & Jenkins’s (1969; 1973) Experiments 1. 1973: Subjects learned 24 words, which were composed of 12 pairs of primary associates (e.g., salt-pepper ; but associated words did not follow each other in the list).
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2. 5 Orienting Tasks : (designed to manipulate the type of encoding): Non-semantic orienting tasks : a. E-G checking (Orthographic) : did each word contain either an E or a G? b. Syntactic sentence Frame : Before each word a basic sentence frame appeared, and Ss had to judge whether the word fit into that frame. The two syntactic frames used were: 1- “It is ____________” (Verbs, Adj) 2-“It is a __________ “ (Nouns) c. Part of Speech And 2 Semantic orienting tasks : d. Frequency of usage : estimate how often each word was used in speech e. Pleasantness/Unpleasantness Ratings : on 1-5 scale, how un/pleasant is the concept depicted by the word?
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3. Incidental vs. Intentional Learning -- Incidental learning subjects were not informed of the subsequent memory task; they thought that once they had made judgments about each word, they were free to go. --Intentional learning subjects BOTH
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Encoding & Retrieval F09 - LTM: Encoding &...

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