Long Term Memory F09 - Long Term Memory & Forgetting...

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Means of LTM Forgetting A. Decay_________???? 1. Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve Information that is unused will be a. harder to retrieve over time; b. fades in intensity depicts (from bottom to top) Recall, Recognition, Relearning curves Page 1 of 13
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B. Interference 1. most researchers now think that interference is a bigger____________ detriment to memory retrieval than is decay a. Proactive Interference i. earlier information interferes with learning or retrieval of later information Class ___ Class ___B ii. “d_____________ memory” or “i_________________ forgetting” helps prevent proactive interference b. Retroactive Interference i. later information interferes with retrieval of earlier information Class __ Class __ e.g., Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924) found that subjects remembered ______ items from a list after _______________________ than after going about their daily business Very Long-Term Memory Real life memory for a__________________, semantic, and procedural memory The issue of e_____________ v_______________ A__________________ Memories 1. 400 subjects, age 17-74 on memories of people in high school graduating class. Retention interval ranged from 3 months to 47 years. 2. Tasks tested: a. Free Recall of classmate names b. Picture Cuing (recall name from photos) c. Picture Matching (6 photos to 1 name) d. Name Matching (6 names to 1 photo) e. Picture Recognition of Faces Page 2 of 13
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f. Name Recognition 3. FINDINGS : Recall of names was __% of graduating class 3 months after graduation; __ after 48 years. Cued recall with photographs was approximately the same. Recognition memory for names & faces, however, was __% after a 3 month interval. Name recognition did not noticeably decline for __ years; Face recognition did not drop below __% until after 35 years. 4. Explanations: a. Picture Superiority Effect b. O___________ : multiple exposures above what is needed to learn new info Compare: college professors failed to recognize names and faces of students __ years after teaching them (typically in only a single class). c. D______________________ : Information learned over longer intervals is better remembered than that learned in a single session 5. P_______________ : the relatively permanent information that remains after 3-5 years. The first few years show the steepest decline in memory Declarative/Procedural Knowledge A. Cognitive Psychology 1. Cognitive Psychology students enrolled in the Open University 1978-1989 were tested in 6 topic areas: a. Research Methods b. Language c. Memory d. Problem Solving e. Artificial Intelligence Page 3 of 13
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Long Term Memory F09 - Long Term Memory & Forgetting...

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