Memory I (ST & Work. Memory, (studt) S10

Memory I (ST & Work. Memory, (studt) S10 - Proposed...

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Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting I. Multistore (or Modal) Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Different properties of each mode/store: Capacity , Duration, Code A. Sensory Store 1. Capacity : very limited 2. Duration : Iconic Memory : 1/3 second Icon (Neisser, 1967) Sperling (1960) & Partial Report Technique --icon masked by another incoming stimulus
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Echoic Memory : 2-3 seconds Moray (1965) and Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) used stereoscopic stimuli (3-4 perceived channels) R: M 5 3 L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S --Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds --Visual cue to partially report one of the channels -- Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic memory lasted 2-4 seconds --Significant advantage of 3 rd item presented to an ear (out of 3) 3. Code : “Modality-specific”—in same mode/form in which information was presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are lost--occurs in echoic memory, when items & retrieval cue presented auditorily Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of list; does not occur with tone or beep B. Short-Term Store 1. Capacity Miller’s “Magic Number 7___” 7__+ 2 items But, type of stimuli influences STM Chunking --De Groot (1965) Later scheme (with spaces indicating levels in the hierarchy): 444 444 333 333 444 333 444 5 [= 80 digits]
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--Size of chunks matters (Simon) 2. Duration Brown-Peterson task: 20 seconds; Performance at 7% at 18-seconds Decay vs. Interference
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Memory I (ST & Work. Memory, (studt) S10 - Proposed...

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