STM & Working Memory 2009 (1)

STM & Working Memory 2009 (1) - Proposed Stages of...

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Unformatted text preview: Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting From an evolutionary perspective, what might be some of the functions of memory? I. Multistore (or Modal) Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Different properties of each mode/store: Capacity, Duration, Code A. Sensory Memory 1. Capacity : very limited 2. Duration : Iconic Memory : 1/3 second Icon (Neisser, 1967) Sperling (1960) & Partial Report Technique--icon masked by another incoming stimulus Echoic Memory : 2-3 seconds Moray (1965) and Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) used stereoscopic stimuli (3-4 perceived channels) R: M 5 3 L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S--Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds--Visual cue to partially report one of the channels--Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic memory lasted 2-4 seconds--Significant advantage of 3 rd item presented to an ear (out of 3) 3. Code : “Modality-specific”—in same mode/form in which information was presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are lost--occurs in echoic memory, when items & retrieval cue presented auditorily --Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of list; does not occur with tone or beep B. Short-Term Memory 1. Capacity Miller’s “Magical Number 7” 7+ 2 items But, type of stimuli influences STM Chunking --De Groot (1965)--S. F., studied by Ericsson, Chase & Falloon (1980) B. Later scheme (with spaces indicating levels in the hierarchy): 444 444 333 333 444 333 444 5 [= 80 digits]--Size of chunks matters (Simon) 7 1-syllable words 7 7 2-syllable words 7 7 3-syllable words 6 7 two-word phrases 4 7 8-word sentences 3 2. Duration Brown-Peterson task: 20 seconds; Performance at 7% at 18-seconds Decay vs. Interference ?...
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This note was uploaded on 12/17/2010 for the course PSY 43785 taught by Professor Reed during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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STM & Working Memory 2009 (1) - Proposed Stages of...

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