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Chinese Cultural Studies:
(c. 500 CE)
The Analects, excerpts
Themes in Confucian Teaching
the Superior Man, or Gentleman, or Scholar
Learning and Teaching
Rectifying The Names
: Fan-ch'ih asked about jen.
The Master said, "It is to love all men." He asked about
knowledge. "It is to know all men." Fan ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.
The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this way, the crooked
can be made to be upright."
: The Master said, "Is humaneness a thing remote? I wish to be humane, and behold!
humaneness is at hand."
: Tzu-kung said, "Suppose I put the case of a man who extensively confers benefits on the
people, and is able to assist everyone, what would you say about him? Might he be called
perfectly humane?" The Master said, "Why speak only of humaneness in connection with him?
Must he not have the qualities of a sage? . . . Now the man of perfect humaneness, wishing to
be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks
also to enlarge others. To be able to judge of others by what is nearby in ourselves, that is what
we might call the art of humaneness."
: Tzu-kung asked, saying, "Is there one world which may serve as a rule of practice for
all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to
yourself, do not do to others."
: Someone said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be
recompensed with kindness?" The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?
Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."