The Analects

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Main | Other Chinese Web Sites Chinese Cultural Studies: Confucius Kongfuzi (c. 500 CE) The Analects, excerpts Themes in Confucian Teaching Jen - Humaneness Junzi (chün-tzu)- the Superior Man, or Gentleman, or Scholar Li - Rites Yüeh - Music Learning and Teaching Government Rectifying The Names Jen (Humaneness) 1 XII.22 : Fan-ch'ih asked about jen. The Master said, "It is to love all men." He asked about knowledge. "It is to know all men." Fan ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers. The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this way, the crooked can be made to be upright." VII.29 : The Master said, "Is humaneness a thing remote? I wish to be humane, and behold! humaneness is at hand." VI.28 : Tzu-kung said, "Suppose I put the case of a man who extensively confers benefits on the people, and is able to assist everyone, what would you say about him? Might he be called perfectly humane?" The Master said, "Why speak only of humaneness in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? . . . Now the man of perfect humaneness, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others. To be able to judge of others by what is nearby in ourselves, that is what we might call the art of humaneness." XV.23 : Tzu-kung asked, saying, "Is there one world which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others." XIV.36 : Someone said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?" The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."
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VII.15 : The Master said, "With coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow; I still have joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honors acquired by inhumanity are to me as a floating cloud." IV.25 : The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone. He who practices it will have neighbors." XV.8 : The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of humanity. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their humanity." VII.6 : The Master said, "Let the will be set on the path of duty. Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped. Let perfect virtue be accorded with. Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts." The Superior Man ( chün-tzu ) 2 XX.3 : The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man ( chün tzu )." XV.17 : The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety ( li ). He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."
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