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IRStudy1 - Alterio Spinelli(1907-198 o One of 8 EU founding...

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Alterio Spinelli (1907-198 o One of 8 EU founding fathers- key federalist architect "Prophet of the European Union" o At first, a member of the Italian communist party arrested in 1927 as a fascist dissenter o Studied in prison and became a federalist Dramatic leap to federalism is the only way to succeed; functionalism’s step-by-step approach would never create institutions strong enough to solve major problems and democratic enough to respond to the people. o o Wrote Ventotene Manifesto in 1941 Fascism naturally derives from national independence and nationalism; federalism stops it Felt nation-states were a threat He wanted the EU to be created at once (more or less as it is today) Adamant against Functionalism; too ad hoc Federalist approach preserves democracy Makes it easier to deal with crisis. Criticized the slow undemocratic process that characterized postwar integration in Europe. o Founded the European Federalist Movement in 1943 o Nominated a member of the EEC's Executive Commission in 1970 o 1976 to 1986 he was a member of the European Parliament, as a member drafted a constitution for the EU. Ideas would be included in Maastricht. Sig: Contradiction: he is afraid of nation states, but he advocates for a European nation state that has the same dangers. More political approach: "you have political problems, you need a political solution" His goal: a revolutionary Europe federal state of individual states that ceded their sovereignty to common democratic institutions. To overcome resistance; US-style constitutional convention Sig: Fight against fascism (a move towards a better structure so that can never happen again) Sergio Pistone, “Altiero Spinelli and the Strategy for the United States of Europe,” The European Union, pp. 91-98 David Mitrany (1888-1975), o Considered the creator of functionalism in international relations, aka liberal institutionalism The idea that we can build integrated communities (System Reformer ideal) o After World War II he pushed for cooperation in functional areas – build community in policy areas of common needs and cooperation – based on meeting shared critical needs Integration in these areas would lead to peace Believed that for the world to achieve peaceful integration, it needs a system that makes possible automation and continuous social action while adapting to its changing needs and conditions in the same sense government would Activities selected specifically and organized separately. Allowing for experimentation for what the best organizational system for its functions as well being able to alter functions needs and conditions alter Degrees of Coordination Within the same group of functions, there should be technical coordination. Coordination of
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IRStudy1 - Alterio Spinelli(1907-198 o One of 8 EU founding...

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