Lecture 13

Lecture 13 - Learning/Memory Motivation and Emotion These...

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Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 Learning/Memory, Motivation, and Emotion These are distinct psychological processes that are central determinants of behavioral responsivenesss. o Learning/Memory = the storage and retrieval of prior events used to organize future behaviors. o Motivation = the reason(s) for engaging in a particular behavior; include basic needs, desired objects, goals, or ideals. o Emotion = a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Although these physiological processes are distinct conceptually, they are mediated by overlapping neural circuits. Accordingly, a single “system” may be underlying different these processes. Limbic: Lobe Cingulate gyrus is a cortical lobe located at the border of the cerebral hemispheres (i.e. limbus described by Broca) and underneath other neocortical structures. In the 1930s, Papez postulated that the unexplained neural bases of emotion was mediated by the uncharacterized cingulated gyrus. o Consistent with neurophysiological evidence e.g. Phineas Gage. Limbic: Lobe, Circuit Papez further expanded upon this idea and established the connections of the cingulated (gyrus) cortex. o Concluded that the interconnected structures form a circuit which is known by as the Papez circuit (N.B. it is a subcortical processing loop similar to the “basal ganglia” of the motor system). o Concluded that the circuit mediated emotional behavior. Limbic: Lobe, Circuit, and System In the 1950’s MacLean revised Papez’s work leading to a more encompassing group of structures in the forebrain cortex (telencephalon) and subcortex (diencephalon) involved in emotion, which he termed the “limbic system”.
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Picture 4 Picture 5 Although there is continuous debate over whether this constitutes a system equivalent to sensory or motor systems and which structures should be included… But these structures do interact to mediate the psychological processes of motivation, emotion, and (several forms of) memory. Limbic Inputs and Outputs The limbic system has extensive: Input from sensory association cortices (multimodal perceptual information) and prefrontal cortex (executive functions). Output to prefrontal cortex influences conscious decision-making. Output from hypothalamus to influence autonomic behavior and endocrine function. I. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES OF LEARNING/MEMORY a. Nature of Learning and Memory The basic functional property of learning/memory is the utilization of information for a later time point. This requires that information be not only encoded by sensory/perceptual systems but that the information is somehow stored (i.e. maintained within the brain) and retrieved at the later time point. Major structures involved in learning/memory are largely known.
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Lecture 13 - Learning/Memory Motivation and Emotion These...

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