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Hypothesis_testing_measurement_-_notes_updated - Scientific...

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8/3/2010 1 Hypothesis testing and Measurement Scientific Thinking Science is: Empirical – Based on observations Objective – Observations and conclusions are clearly defined in ways that allow others to get the same results Systematic – Observations are organized in such a way that allows causal inferences Often based on theory Theory Hypotheses Predictions Data/Observations Conclusions Components of theory-based research Theory: Ideas about why things should work in a particular manner Hypotheses: Specific idea about how a particular phenomenon works Predictions: Hypotheses translated into concepts used in the study Data/Observations: Experimental results that can speak to predictions Conclusions: Whether results confirm observations; how these speak to hypotheses
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8/3/2010 2 Parental Investment theory PI theory: in most species, male reproductive success is limited by access to females, but not the reverse Hypothesis: males should increase # of offspring with each additional mate to a greater degree than females Prediction: number of offspring produced by males will increase with number of sex partners; number of offspring produced by females will not change with number of sex partners Parental Investment Theory Results: Conclusions: data support theory as originally framed… Meta-Theory Theory Hypotheses Theory Hypotheses Predictions Data/Observations Conclusions Predictions Data/Observations Conclusions Evolutionary Psychology Metatheoretical position that the human brain contains a collection of specialized processing mechanisms designed by natural selection to address specific problems encountered by our ancestors over the course of human evolution Examples of Adaptive Problems: Visual scene analysis Food choice Mate choice/attraction Predator avoidance Navigation Parenting
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