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ch04 - CHAPTER 4 GROWTH AND POLICY Solutions to the...

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CHAPTER 4 GROWTH AND POLICY Solutions to the Problems in the Textbook Conceptual Problems: 1. Endogenous or self-sustained growth supposedly can be achieved by policies that affect a nation's savings rate and therefore the proportion of GDP that goes towards investment. The neoclassical growth model of Chapter 3 predicted that long-term growth can only be achieved through technological progress and that changes in the savings rate have only transitory effects. The endogenous growth model, however, predicts that countries with a higher savings rate can achieve higher long-term growth and that a nation's government can affect the long-term growth rate by implementing policies that affect the savings rate. 2. A simple model with constant returns to scale to capital alone implies increasing returns to scale to all factors taken together, which could cause a single large firm to dominate the economy. However, such a model ignores the possibility that external returns to capital exist, in addition to the internal (private) returns. In other words, more investment not only leads to a higher and more efficient capital stock but also to new ideas and new ways of doing things, which can then be copied by others. Therefore, a single firm does not necessarily reap all of the benefits of increased output. 3. In the neoclassical growth model, an increase in the savings rate does not increase the long-term growth rate of output. However, because of the short-run adjustment process, there is some transitional gain that will lead to a higher level of output per capita. In the endogenous growth model, however, the savings rate does affect the long-term growth rate of output. 4.a. Chapter 4 suggests that the key to long-term economic growth is investment in human and physical capital with particular emphasis on research and development. 4.b. (i) Investment tax credits may potentially affect economic growth in the long run by achieving a higher rate of technological progress. (ii) R&D subsidies and grants lead to technological advances that will have private and social returns. They are very effective in stimulating long-term economic growth. (iii) According to the endogenous growth model, policies designed to increase the savings rate will increase the long-term growth rate of output. However, empirical evidence does not lend much support to that notion. (iv) Increased funding for primary education has large private and social returns and is therefore an excellent means to stimulate long-term growth, even though it may take a long time until these policies have their full effect. 5. The notion of absolute convergence states that economies with the same savings rate and rate of population growth will reach the same steady-state equilibrium if they have access to the same 44
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technology. The notion of conditional convergence states that economies that have access to the same technology and the same rate of population growth but different savings rates will reach steady-state equilibria at a different level of output but the same economic growth rate. There is empirical
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