ch10 - CHAPTER 10 MONEY, INTEREST, AND INCOME Answers to...

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CHAPTER 10 MONEY, INTEREST, AND INCOME Answers to Problems in the Textbook : Conceptual Problems: 1. The model in Chapter 9 assumed that both the price level and the interest rate were fixed. But the IS- LM model lets the interest rate fluctuate and determines the combination of output demanded and the interest rate for a fixed price level. It should be noted that while the upward-sloping AD-curve in Chapter 9 (the [C+I+G+NX]-line in the Keynesian cross diagram) assumed that interest rates and prices were fixed, the downward-sloping AD-curve that is derived at the end of Chapter 10 from the IS-LM model lets the price level fluctuate and describes all combinations of the price level and the level of output demanded at which the goods and money sector simultaneously are in equilibrium. 2.a. If the expenditure multiplier ( α ) becomes larger, the increase in equilibrium income caused by a unit change in intended spending also becomes larger. Assume investment spending increases due to a change in the interest rate. If the multiplier α becomes larger, any increase in spending will cause a larger increase in equilibrium income. This means that the IS-curve will become flatter as the size of the expenditure multiplier becomes larger. If aggregate demand becomes more sensitive to interest rates, any change in the interest rate causes the [C+I+G+NX]-line to shift up by a larger amount and, given a certain size of the expenditure multiplier α , this will increase equilibrium income by a larger amount. As a result, the IS-curve will become flatter. 2.b. Monetary policy changes affect interest rates and this leads to a change in intended spending, which is reflected in a change in income. In 2.a. it was explained that a steep IS-curve means either that the multiplier α is small or that desired spending is not very interest sensitive. Therefore, an increase in money supply will reduce interest rates. However, this does not result in a large increase in aggregate demand if spending is very interest insensitive. Similarly, if the multiplier is small, then any change in spending will not affect output significantly. Therefore, the steeper the IS-curve, the weaker the effect of monetary policy changes on equilibrium output. 3. Assume that money supply is fixed. Any increase in income will increase money demand and the resulting excess demand for money will drive the interest rate up. This, in turn, will reduce the quantity of money balances demanded to bring the money sector back to equilibrium. But if money demand is very interest insensitive, then a larger increase in the interest rate is needed to reach a new equilibrium in the money sector. As a result, the LM-curve becomes steeper. Along the LM-curve, an increase in the interest rate is always associated with an increase in
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2010 for the course SOES 2003 taught by Professor Jian during the Fall '10 term at Uni. Southampton.

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ch10 - CHAPTER 10 MONEY, INTEREST, AND INCOME Answers to...

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