scty_315_m2_ch2 - 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Module 2 Summary Chapter 2 Development of U.S. Intelligence 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Objectives Major themes Major historical developments Key terms Competitive analysis Groupthink Monitoring National intelligence National technical means Render Verification 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes National intelligence British, Elizabeth I (1558-1603) French, Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642) Russian, Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) US, Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932-1945), 1940 Novelty of U.S. Intelligence US went ~ 170 years without a program Once a world power, greater need for intelligence 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes Threat-based foreign policy Kaiserine Germany in WWI Axis in WWII Soviet Union and the Cold War Responding to threats gave focus to the operational side of intelligence Todays threat: nonstate actors 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes Intelligence consists of four broad activities Collection (imagery, signals, espionage) Covert action Counterintelligence Analysis Unique entities developed to conduct collection and covert action Counterintelligence a responsibility of all agencies 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes Three overlapping functions were established to conduct analysis CIA Directorate of Intelligence State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research Defense Intelligence Agency All are all-source analytical agencies Access to the full range of collected intelligence All work on the same issues 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes Why? Different consumers (policy makers) have different needs Competitive analysis: The belief that by having analysts in several agencies who have different backgrounds and perspectives work an issue, parochial views more likely will be countered and proximate reality is more likely to be achieved Competitive analysis should negate groupthink and forced consensus, but not always (Iraqi WMD) 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes Consumer-Producer relations Distance school: The intelligence community should keep itself separate from policy makers to avoid providing intelligence that lacks objectivity and favors or opposes one policy choice Proximate group: too great a distance raised the risk that the intelligence community would be less aware of policy makers needs and produce less useful intelligence Relationship between Analysis and Collection and Covert Action Analysts gain a greater appreciation of operational goals while operators can factor analysis into plans Concern over pressuring analysis to support covert action 12/19/10...
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scty_315_m2_ch2 - 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in...

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