scty_315_m2_ch2 - SCTY 315 Studies in Intelligence I Module...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Module 2 Summary – Chapter 2 Development of U.S. Intelligence 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Objectives • Major themes • Major historical developments • Key terms – Competitive analysis – Groupthink – Monitoring – National intelligence – National technical means – Render – Verification 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • National intelligence – British, Elizabeth I (1558-1603) – French, Cardinal Richelieu (1624-1642) – Russian, Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) – US, Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932-1945), 1940 • Novelty of U.S. Intelligence – US went ~ 170 years without a program – Once a world power, greater need for intelligence 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • Threat-based foreign policy – Kaiserine Germany in WWI – Axis in WWII – Soviet Union and the Cold War • Responding to threats gave focus to the operational side of intelligence • Today’s threat: nonstate actors 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • Intelligence consists of four broad activities – Collection (imagery, signals, espionage) – Covert action – Counterintelligence – Analysis • Unique entities developed to conduct collection and covert action • Counterintelligence a responsibility of all agencies 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • Three overlapping functions were established to conduct analysis – CIA Directorate of Intelligence – State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research – Defense Intelligence Agency • All are all-source analytical agencies • Access to the full range of collected intelligence • All work on the same issues 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • Why? – Different consumers (policy makers) have different needs – Competitive analysis: The belief that by having analysts in several agencies who have different backgrounds and perspectives work an issue, parochial views more likely will be countered and proximate reality is more likely to be achieved – Competitive analysis should negate groupthink and forced consensus, but not always (Iraqi WMD) 12/19/10 SCTY 315, Studies in Intelligence I Major themes • Consumer-Producer relations – Distance school: The intelligence community should keep itself separate from policy makers to avoid providing intelligence that lacks objectivity and favors or opposes one policy choice – Proximate group: too great a distance raised the risk that the intelligence community would be less aware of policy makers’ needs and produce less useful intelligence • Relationship between Analysis and Collection and Covert Action – Analysts gain a greater appreciation of operational goals while operators can factor analysis into plans – Concern over pressuring analysis to support covert action 12/19/10...
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scty_315_m2_ch2 - SCTY 315 Studies in Intelligence I Module...

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