anth test 2

anth test 2 - A NTH (test 2) Systematics & Taxonomy...

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ANTH (test 2) Systematics & Taxonomy - Systematics- study of the relationships among groups of organisms - Taxonomy- system for classifying groups of organisms - We use the taxonomic scheme devised by Carelius Linnaeus 2 differences in the use of the taxonomic scheme by Linnaeus & modern biologists - Concept of species 1. To Linnaeus, there was no fundamental difference between the taxonomic categories species to kingdom. Each group of organism has its own unique “essence.” The essence represents a suit of traits that uniquely distinguishes one taxon from another 2. Therefore species differ among themselves in their essences 3. If 2 or more species share part of their essences, then these species will be classified together in a genus 4. Each genus has a unique essence 5. If 2 or more genera share part of their essences these genera will be classified together in the same family 6. There is no fundamental difference among the fundamental taxonomic categories 7. Classification was based on shared traits 8. Modern biologists regard the species category as being different from the taxonomic category 9. To modern biologists, a species is a real group of organisms 10. A species the unit that evolves
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11. The higher taxonomic categories are human constructs, they do not exist in nature 12.The classification of species into higher categories- genus to kingdom- is based on a researcher’s opinion 13. Researchers differ in their opinions about classification. Therefore, there may be more than one taxonomic scheme - Evolutionary implications 1. Linnaeus was a creationist, to him species did not evolve 2. Taxonomy facilitated communication among biologists 3. Example: species that are classified in the same genus are inferred to share a close phylogenic relationship 4. Phylogeny- evolutionary laws of descent, ancestor-descendent relationship - Limitations in making evolutionary statements from taxonomy 1. Cannot express exact ancestor descendent in relationships 2. Cannot express chronology (time element) in evolution GG Simpson- Organisms are in the same species not because they look alike but rather they look alike they are in the same species # of species Lemurs- 32 Larses- 19 Tarsus- 5 New monkeys- 78
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Old monkeys- 89 Hominoids- 14 More species of monkeys then any other group of primates Traits of primates - Grouping hands & feet - Nails, not claws - High reliance on vision eyes are positioned at the front of skull, providing stereoscopic vision - Low reliance on olfaction; reduction in length of snout - Postorbital bar - Large brain size compared to body size - Give birth to small litters - Long period of juvenile development Theories on the origin of traits that characterize primates - Arboreal Theory 1. Traits that characterize primates evolves because primates were adapting to life in the trees 2. Traits that characterized primates evolved because primates were preying on
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2010 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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anth test 2 - A NTH (test 2) Systematics & Taxonomy...

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