western world notes 2.1

western world notes 2.1 - The late roman republic Winners...

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The late roman republic Winners and losers Traditional roman warfare had followed a pattern of short campaigns organized not to interfere with the needs of farming Unceasing wars caused many problems to ordinary soldiers Many small farmers were forced to sell their land and either work as day laborers or to migrate to Rome Number of the poor increased a lot, especially in Rome The number of slaves increased as well The landless poor could not compete with the slave workforce The poor became an explosive element of Roman politics They supported any politician who promised to address their needs The Poor’s demand for low-priced and eventually free food became one the most contentious issues in the late Roman Republic Rome’s elite reaped rich political and material reward from the Roman expansion Military campaigns created opportunities or getting rich By using their wealth to finance public works and to supports their clients, they wee to gain more political power Creation of large estates by buying bankrupt small farms and by occupying public land illegally Mainly slaves worked those huge farms (latifundia) Periodic slave revolts The elite profited from the expansion also because they took all the governing offices in the new provinces Some governors squeezed all they could from the provincials because officials ruled by martial law Often they faced no punishment because they could use bribery and the senators excused one another’s crimes New values money and power became more valuable to the elite than the traditional virtues (moderation and frugality) they acquired showy luxuries, such as palaces and large country villas for entering friends and clients Tiberius Graccus and Gaius Graccus Emergence of the Equites (litteraly knights)= rich businessmen = new men Rise of factional politics Populares faction = supporters of the people Optimates faction = supporters of “the best” Some people believed in the policies of a certain factions, but others based their choice on political expediency Marius : a member of the equites class Marius acquired political power by using his military skills The first of his family to become consul Reform of the army Even proletarians could serve in the army
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Armies more loyal to their commander than to the state Sulla , the first Roman general who lead his army against Rome Political violence. Proscription lists First triumvirate (=group of three) in 60 BCE Unofficial arrangement among Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar Pompey had his eastern arrangements and land for his veterans confirmed Crassus received the financial control of Asia Minor Caeser got the consulship and then a special command in Gaul Private relationships controlled republican politics. Caesar married his only daughter, Julia, to Pompey During the 50s BCE, Caesar won his soldiers’ loyalty with year after year of
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western world notes 2.1 - The late roman republic Winners...

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