Lecture0410fa

Lecture0410fa - Chemistry 83 09/09/10 Introduction to...

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Chemistry 83 09/09/10 1 Introduction to Science of Chemistry Science is knowledge obtained by making, organizing, and explaining observations Joesten,”Essentials”,Saunders, 1993, 3 Natural science, which is concerned with knowledge about matter (anything that occupies space and has mass) and energy (that which is able to cause motion of matter) is divided into disciplines to simplify its study Study of Non-living Matter
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Chemistry 83 09/09/10 2 Chemistry Composition of matter Structure of matter Properties of matter Changes that matter undergoes and the associated energies Contents of the discipline of chemistry Organize observations Explain observations Composition of Matter - description of components of samples and how they are combined Compound (Combination of elements in fixed ratios shown as subscripts in formulas : H 2 O, NaCl) Element (Simplest substance - represented by symbols : H, O, Na, Cl) Pure Substance (Fixed composition and homogeneous) Mixture (Variable composition - combination of elements and/or compounds) Homogeneous (Uniform: solution of NaCl in H 2 O) Heterogeneous (Non-uniform: NaCl and pepper)
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Chemistry 83 09/09/10 3 Physical Properties (observation does not require a change in composition) Chemical Properties (observation requires change in composition) Properties of Matter - identifying characteristics Melting point Boiling point Density Color Odor Reacts with water Reacts with oxygen Inert Explosive Flammable Physical Changes (involve no change in composition) Chemical Changes (involve change in composition) Changes in Matter Changes in matter are always accompanied by changes in energy
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Chemistry 83 09/09/10 4 Stoker, H.S., Chemical Principles, 3rd, MacMillan, NY, 1990 Endergonic Changes - energy is required continuously. Called endothermic if energy is heat. Exergonic Changes
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2010 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Lecture0410fa - Chemistry 83 09/09/10 Introduction to...

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