Lecture0910f

Lecture0910f - Chemistry 83 09/28/10 Formation and Nature...

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Chemistry 83 09/28/10 1 Formation and Nature of the Hydrosphere Intermolecular forces caused water to condense out of the second atmosphere to produce the hydrosphere There are two types of forces associated with molecules http://www.miramar.sdccd.cc.ca.us/faculty/fgarces/ChemProj/Ch201_Sp2001/Margarita/IMF.htm Intramolecular forces - strong forces (50-1000 kcal/mole) between atoms within a molecule. Determine chemical properties. Intermolecular forces - weak forces (0.05-40 kcal/mole) between two different molecules. Determine physical properties. Van der Waals Force has three components: DDF, LDF, and H-bonding. Strong covalent bond, 103 kcal/mole Weak Van der Waals Force, 4 kcal/mole
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Chemistry 83 09/28/10 2 Dipole-Dipole Force (DDF) http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Forces/intermol/Forces02.htm Force of attraction between permanent dipoles of adjacent polar molecules. Permanent dipoles result from differences in EN of atoms in a molecule DDF is 1 - 6 kcal/mole and increases with increasing polarity (quantified by dipole moments, μ = qr) Prentice Hall 2003, Chp 11 Dipole-Dipole Force (DDF) Size roughly constant Polarity increases BP increases BP is used as a rough indicator of the forces of attraction between molecules since molecules must move faster to overcome an intermolecular force. Molecular weight is used as a rough indicator of sizes of molecules.
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Chemistry 83 09/28/10 3 Kotz&Treichel, Chemistry, 5th, Thompson, USA, 2003, 516 London Dispersion Force (LDF) - force of attraction between temporary, fluctuating dipoles produced by temporary mutual distortions of locations of electrons in two molecules as they approach each other. Petrucci et al, General Chemistry, 8th, Prentice, NJ, 2002,499 The distortion disperses throughout sample so that each molecule is attracted to all nearby molecules by induced temporary dipoles http://www.lakelandschools.us/lh/lburris/pages/bonds.htm http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/ ch334/lecture/intermol/london.gif LDF LDF is exhibited by all molecules and ranges from 0.01 - 10 kcal/mole, depending on SIZES and SHAPES of molecules.
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Lecture0910f - Chemistry 83 09/28/10 Formation and Nature...

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