Lecture1010f

Lecture1010f - Chemistry 83 10/05/10 Chemical Evolution !...

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Chemistry 83 10/05/10 1 Chemical Evolution From volcanic gases to micro- molecules (the precursors for biological molecules) Chemical evolution was ±rst suggested by a Russian biochemist, Aleksandr Oparin • Oparin ʼ s Hypothesis (1924): biological evolution was preceded by chemical evolution, i.e., the ±rst biomolecules were produced from non-living matter before life began • Then biomolecules somehow came together to produce living matter
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Chemistry 83 10/05/10 2 Fox/Dose, Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, rev ed, Dekker, NY,1977, 67 In 1997, Fox suggested a sequence of events involved in chemical evolution “Big Bang” Fox/Dose, Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, rev ed, Dekker, NY,1977, 67 Fox/Dose, Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, rev ed, Dekker, NY,1977, 67
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Chemistry 83 10/05/10 3 Formation of Earth Oldest recorded fossils 4.5-4.8 B 3.3 B 1.2 -1.5 B Evolution of biological chemicals The evolution of biological chemicals occurred in the first billion and a half years after earth was formed Years Ago Organic chemistry background is needed to be able to understand biological molecules • Major biological molecules are compounds of C • Organic chemistry is the study of the compounds of C with emphasis on those also containing H • About 40 million compounds are known to contain carbon • C is a member of the 4A family and requires four bonds to attain an inert gas structure in all its compounds • First rule of organic chemistry: C always has 4 bonds
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Chemistry 83 10/05/10 4 C n H 2n+2 n = 60-100 C n H 2n C n H 2n-2 C n H 2n C 6 H 6 C can exist in rings and/or chains, can have single, double or triple C to C bonds in compounds of C with H: hydrocarbons Isomers of C 5 H 12 Condensed Formula - subscript indicates the number of H atoms bonded to a C atom Straight chain isomer - no C bonded to more than 2 other C atoms Branched chain isomers - at least one C bonded to more than 2 other C atoms http://butane.chem.uiuc.edu/cyerkes/Chem204sp06/Lecture_Notes/lect14c.html Isomers are different substances with the same molecular formula Lewis Formula
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Chemistry 83 10/05/10 5 Hill et al, Chemistry and Life,Macmillan,NY,1993,304 As the number of atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule increases, the complexity and number of possible isomers increase rapidly C 20 H 42 Example: isomers of alkanes, C n
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2010 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Lecture1010f - Chemistry 83 10/05/10 Chemical Evolution !...

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