Lecture2610f

Lecture2610f - Chem 83 12/09/10 Sustainability !...

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Chem 83 12/09/10 1 Sustainability “Sustainability is meeting the needs of today's society without compromising the ability of future societies to meet their needs.” ( Brundtland, G. H., et al. Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.) http://maps.grida.no/go/collection/vital-waste-graphics-2 (US, UK) (Russia, Cuba, Mexico) Economies are divided by the World Bank using 2006 mean annual income as follows: low income , $935 or less; lower middle income , $936 - $3,705; upper middle income , $3,706 - $11,455; and high income , $11,456 or more. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/ EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/ 0,,contentMDK:20420458~menuPK: 64133156~pagePK:64133150~piPK: 64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html Sustainability will be a difFcult goal to attain Population/billions of people
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Chem 83 12/09/10 2 Causes of Un-sustainability • In 1973 Roger Gymer suggested three causes of un-sustainability – Over-population, especially in developing countries – Over-consumption, especially in the developed countries (afFuence) – The wide-spread use of advanced but imperfect technologies • Chem 83 will focus on imperfect technologies Gymer, Roger G.,"Chemistry: An Ecological Approach", NY, Harper & Row, 1973, 756 http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/energy_consumption_per_capita_2004 The least sustainable technology - use of fossil fuels for energy As population and affluence increase, the need for fossil fuels increases. Geochemical cycle for fossil fuels is too slow to be sustainable.
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12/09/10 3 http://www.manicore.com/anglais/documentation_a/articles_a/palace_may2001.html Estimates of long term availability of fossil fuels Jacobson has reviewed and ranked energy sources based on impacts on global warming, pollution, water supply, land use, wildlife, health issues and sustainability 1. Wind 2. Concentrated solar 3. Geothermal 4. Tidal 5. Solar photovoltaic 6. Wave 7. Hydroelectric 8. Coal with C capture (untested) 9. Nuclear 10. Natural gas 11. Oil 12. Corn and cellulosic material Jacobson, M. Z. , Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 148 - 173 Sources 1-7 are sustainable since they are perpetual sources of energy based on wind, water, and solar (WWS). They
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2010 for the course CHEM 83 taught by Professor Bonk,j during the Fall '08 term at Duke.

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Lecture2610f - Chem 83 12/09/10 Sustainability !...

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