Lecture15 - 1 Carbohydrate& Lipid Structure BIOCHEM 227...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Carbohydrate & Lipid Structure BIOCHEM 227 FALL 2010 Lecture 15 Monday, October 4, 2010 TODAY • Revisiting the enzyme design paper • Carbohydrates • Lipids BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 2 Nature 453 : 190 (2008) BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 3 • Result: functional catalysts for both designs – Activity confirmed by assays – Structure confirmed by crystallography Enzyme Design Example • Comparison of design (grey) and actual (cyan): Enzyme Design Example BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 4 Carbohydrates BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 5 What is a Carbohydrate? • “Sugar” or “starch” • carbon chain with hydroxyls and carbonyls – carbo = carbon chain – hydrate = hydrated with added water – often follow (CH 2 O) n • monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide Carbohydrates are Energy-Rich • Many OH groups that can be oxidized • Oxidation is how (most of) life harvests energy from chemicals BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 6 What is a Monosaccharide? • a “simple sugar” • chain of 3-7 carbons – with a ketone or aldehyde at one carbon – and one OH each at all others carbons • ketone → ketose • aldehyde → aldose • also named by number of carbons – triose , tetrose, pentose, hexose, heptose Some Monosaccharides BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 7 Some Monosaccharides Monosaccharide Stereochemistry • trioses have one chiral center • the two stereoisomers are named d- and l- – normally d-, but some l- BCH 227 FALL 2010 LECTURE 15: CARBOHYDRATE & LIPID STRUCTURES 4 OCT 2010 8 Monosaccharide Stereochemistry • For >3 carbons, there are multiple chiral...
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Lecture15 - 1 Carbohydrate& Lipid Structure BIOCHEM 227...

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