Unformatted text preview: Regional Economies Regional Economies Postwar Period
Lecture Sixteen History 113 Regionalism and Economic Trends Regionalism and Economic Trends after 1945 Major economic changes after 1945: Significant impacts on economic development of the West, Quebec, and Maritime = Growing Regionalism 1) Canadian economy increasingly integrated into the U.S. economy 2) The core of continental economy shifts to the south and west of the U.S. 3) Growing emphasis on resourcebased industries CanadaU.S. Trade Relations CanadaU.S. Trade Relations Exports To: Britain 1900 – 57.1 1950 – 15.1 1977 – 4.4 Imports From: Britain 1900 – 25.7 1950 – 12.7 1977 – 3.0 1900 – 59.2 1950 – 67.1 1977 – 70.2 United States 1900 – 34.2 1950 – 64.8 1977 – 69.9 United States Regional Economies Regional Economies Growing complaint by politicians and business that national economic policies favour central Canada And hinder business and economic development in other regions of country Active involvement of provincial governments in economic development “Provincebuilding”: promotional activities by provincial governments to promote business and to defend against federal government Rise of the West Rise of the West Regional Discontent before 1945 Dominance of Wheat Economy Economic trends lead to economic growth and new opportunities Resource rich western provinces Growing Discontent with Federal Government national economic policies and Central Canadian business Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Ranching Industry Alberta government – to encourage economic growth and diversification Opportunity provided by oil and gas after 1945 Oil and Gas Industry before 1945: Minor exploration and extraction Foreign owned companies (Turner Valley 1914) Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Leduc 1947 (Imperial Oil) (Oil well at Leduc) Postwar Oil Boom Oil production dominated by Foreign firms Canadian Firms Example: Dome Petroleum Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Tensions between provincial, federal, and private business concerns Pipelines: Cost related to issues of markets and reserves Profit vs. national and regional priorities Oil pipelines Gas pipelines (more contentious) Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry TransCanada Pipeline (national policy) (green) Provincial policy: Alberta Oil and Gas Conservation Board 1938 Allocation and Conservation Alberta Gas Trunk Line (yellow) Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry Alberta: Oil and Gas Industry National Oil Policy 1961 Oil as a “national asset” “Canada first” policy? 1970s Oil Boom and Energy Policy: Province vs. Federal Government (Peter Lougheed 1975) National Energy Program Saskatchewan: Potash Saskatchewan: Potash Direct and Indirect Government Promotion of the Industry Potash – Large deposits discovered in 1940s Developed by large (mostly American) multi nationals 1975 – Saskatchewan government creates Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (PCS) Holds 40% share of the industry 1989 – PC government privatizes Quebec and the Quiet Revolution Quebec and the Quiet Revolution “Quiet Revolution”: Dramatic social and economic changes/reforms introduced in Quebec during 1960s (70s) (Jean Lesage) Economy – Provincial government and business pursue promotional measures to diversify and strengthen the economy. “Nationalist” agenda – To strengthen control of French Canadians in economy and business. Quebec and the Quiet Revolution Quebec and the Quiet Revolution Dominance of EnglishCanadian Business Elite and Foreign Firms Measures to diversify economy and encourage Quebecois participation: Limits to achieving these objectives Societe Generale de Financement 1962 (to provide capital for new ventures) Sidbec (Steel company) Quebec and the Quiet Revolution Quebec and the Quiet Revolution Hydro Quebec (Rene Levesque) Government owned hydro monopoly Goals Mixed success Caisse de depot et de placement 1965 Investment fund /QPP Long term impact? Maritimes and Economic Decline Maritimes and Economic Decline “Deindustrialization” after WWI Geographic and resource problems combined with impact of national economic policies Policies to provide capital and incentives for manufacturing to locate in Maritimes Example: Industrial Estates Ltd. (NS) Bricklin Car (picture) Failure? Federal Regional Development ...
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- Fall '09
- History, Soul-Junk, gas industry, Gas Industry Alberta