Ch03-SG - CourtsandAlternative Dispute Resolution WHATTHIS...

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Chapter 3: Courts and Alternative Dispute Resolution W HAT   THIS  C HAPTER  I S  A BOUT This chapter  explains which courts have power  to hear what  disputes  and  when  and  outlines what  hap pens  before,  during,  and  after  a  civil  trial.  The  chapter  also  covers  alternative  dispute  resolution  and  online  dispute  resolution. C HAPTER  O UTLINE I. THE JUDICIARY’S ROLE IN AMERICAN GOVERNMENT The power  of  judicial review : the courts can decide whether  the laws or actions of the executive branch and   the legislative branch are constitutional. II. BASIC JUDICIAL REQUIREMENTS  A. J URISDICTION   To hear a case, a court must  have jurisdiction over (1) the defendant  or the property  involved  and  (2) the   subject matter. 1. Jurisdiction over Persons or Property A court  has  in personam  (personal) jurisdiction  over state residents. Long arm  statutes  permit  courts   to exercise jurisdiction over nonresidents  who  have  minimum  contacts  with the state (for example, do  business there). A court has  in rem  jurisdiction over property  within  its borders. 2. Jurisdiction over Subject Matter A court  of  general jurisdiction  can decide  virtually  any  type  of case. A court’s jurisdiction  may  be  limited  by the subject of a suit, the amount  of money  in controversy, or whether  a proceeding  is a  trial or appeal. 3. Jurisdiction of the Federal Courts a. Federal Questions Any suit based  on the Constitution, a treaty, or a federal law can originate in a federal court. b. Diversity of Citizenship Federal  jurisdiction  covers  cases involving  (1) citizens  of different  states, (2) a foreign  govern - ment  and  citizens of a state or of different  states, or (3) citizens of a state and  citizens or subjects  of a foreign government.  The amount  in controversy must be more than  $75,000. 4. Exclusive v. Concurrent Jurisdiction Exclusive: when  cases can be tried  only in federal courts  or only in state courts. Concurrent: When   both federal and  state courts can hear a case. B. J URISDICTION   IN  C YBERSPACE 15
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16 UNIT 1: THE FOUNDATIONS Whether  a court  can  compel  the  appearance  of a party   outside  the  physical  limits  of the  court’s juris- diction  depends  on the amount  of business the party  transacts over the Internet  with  parties   within  the  court’s jurisdiction.
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CHAPTER 3: COURTS AND ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION 17 C. I NTERNATIONAL  J URISDICTIONAL  I SSUES The  minimum- contact  standard  can  apply  in  an  international  context.  As  in  cyberspace,  a  business  should  attempt  to comply with the laws of any jurisdiction in which it targets customers. D.
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course BUS 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at CSU Dominguez Hills.

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Ch03-SG - CourtsandAlternative Dispute Resolution WHATTHIS...

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