Ch05-SG - Torts,CyberTorts,andProductLiability WHATTHIS...

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Chapter 5: Torts, Cyber Torts, and Product Liability W HAT   THIS  C HAPTER  I S  A BOUT Torts  consist of wrongful  conduct  by one person  that  causes injury to another.  Tort  is French for “wrong.”   For  acts that  cause physical injury  or that  interfere with  physical security and  freedom  of movement,  tort law  provides   remedies, typically damages. This chapter  outlines intentional  torts, negligence, and  strict liability. These categories  include  torts that are specifically related  to business and  cyber torts. Manufacturers, processors, and  sellers may also be liable to consumers, users, and  bystanders  for physical harm   or property  damage  caused  by defective goods. This is product  liability. C HAPTER  O UTLINE I. THE BASIS OF TORT LAW Two notions serve as the basis of all torts: wrongs  and  compensation. Tort law recognizes that some acts are  wrong  because they cause injuries to others. Most crimes involve torts, but not all torts are crimes.  A tort ac- tion is a  civil  action in which one person  brings a personal suit against another, usually for damages. II. INTENTIONAL TORTS AGAINST PERSONS Intentional  torts involve acts that  were  intended  or could  be expected  to bring  about  consequences that  are  the basis of the tort. A  tortfeasor  (one committing  a tort) must  intend  to commit an act, the consequences of  which interfere with the personal or business interests of another in a way not permitted  by law. A. A SSAULT   AND  B ATTERY 1. Assault An  intentional  act that  creates  in another  person  a reasonable  appre hension  or fear  of immediate  harmful or offensive contact. 2. Battery An intentional and  harmful  or offensive physical contact.   Physical injury need  not occur.  Whether  the contact is offensive is determined  by the reasonable person  standard. 3. Compensation A plaintiff may be compensated  for emotional harm  or loss of reputation  resulting from a battery, as  well as for physical harm. 4. Defenses  to Assault and Battery a. Consent When  a person  consents to an act that damages  him  or her, there is generally no liability for the  damage. b. Self-Defense An individual  who is defending  his or her life or physical well-being can claim self-defense. c. Defense  of Others 31
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32 UNIT 2: THE PUBLIC ENVIRONMENT An  individual  can  act  in  a reasonable  manner  to  protect  others  who  are  in  real  or  apparent   danger.
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CHAPTER 5: TORTS, CYBER TORTS, AND PRODUCT LIABILITY 33 d. Defense  of Property Reasonable  force may  be used  in  attempting  to  remove  intruders  from  one’s home,  although   force  that  is  likely  to  cause  death  or  great  bodily  injury  can  never  be  used  just  to  protect 
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Ch05-SG - Torts,CyberTorts,andProductLiability WHATTHIS...

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