Lec1-pres1-29F - Chapter 1 Introduction to Microcontrollers...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Microcontrollers CSCC85 Fall 2009 1.1. Basic functional units in a computer What are microcontrollers? Central component in many industrial, automotive, and consumer products. Perform 'control' functions by interfacing with the 'real world' to turn devices on and off and to monitor conditions. Microcontroller pros & cons Advantages-Designs are implemented with fewer components-Usually results in shorter development time, lower manufacturing cost, lower power consumption, higher reliability-Changes in design can be implemented by modifying only the software, minimizing impact on the manufacturing cycle Disadvantages-Slower than its discrete counterparts-Extremely fast response to events handled poorly processor vs. controller Instruction Set Features processor-instruction sets have powerful addressing modes with instructions that operate on large volumes of data.-Arrays of data, using address pointers and offsets.-auto-increment/decrement modes to step through arrays on byte, word, or double word boundaries. controller-Instruction sets cater to the control of inputs and outputs.-Instructions are able to operate on individual bits-Instructions are available for input/output operations, event timing, enabling and setting priority levels for interrupts.-Instructions are extremely compact; most implemented in a single byte Computers are machines that accept data and instructions, perform some operations on the data then they make the results available to the outside world Note that the data can come from transducers making measurements and that the output can control external systems.-Two types of info in memory - Program & Data.-Input Unit brings data and instructions into the computer and converts it to a form suitable for the CPU.-Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the actual calculations and operations using the instructions and data from the outside world.-Memory Unit stores the data, instructions and the results.-Output Unit makes the results of the computations available to the outside world.-The four basic functional units exchange information frequently in the course of calculations, therefore an interconnection medium, a set of wires is also required to move the information. Input Unit Output Unit Central Processing Unit Memory Unit Intercon- nection Medium Figure 1.1 - Main functional elements in a computer. 1.2. Bus Structure Using Separate wires for each pair of electronic units uses too many interconnections. It is far more practical to share most of the wires in a common link called a Bus. Fig. 1.2 shows a system where a single bus connects all parts of a computer together....
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course CSC CSCC85 taught by Professor Lorincz during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Lec1-pres1-29F - Chapter 1 Introduction to Microcontrollers...

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