ex2ab06_annotated - name(required Extrapolation and...

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name (required) ___________________ Extrapolation and Radiation None of this material has been covered in 2007, so all questions in this section should be ignored. 1. (4pts) Which of the following comprise significant portions of the U.S. annual average background exposures to ionizing radiation (“significant” is more than 2% of U.S. annual average)? MTF A) cosmic rays D) microwave ovens F) rocks and soil B) radon E) elements inside your body (potassium) G) gamma rays from processed foods C) hairdryers and other household appliances 2. (4pts) MTF Bruce Ames has argued that the rodent model of carcinogenesis (cancer testing of chemicals using rodents) may have serious flaws . That challenge is based on a possibly faulty A) extrapolation across species (rodents to humans) B) extrapolation across doses C) extrapolation across related hazards, or D) Ames’s challenge is not related to an extrapolation at all 3. (4pts) Which examples/options fit either an accelerating or threshold model of extrapolation? In this question, you are simply deciding if the extrapolation is greater than linear in some fashion. MTF A) Considering your accident rate when driving after no drinks as a baseline, you are 4X as likely to have an accident while driving after two drinks as after one drink C) Half the LD50 dose of radiation kills less than 25% of animals ( the LD50 kills half ). D) A company needs to sell 1,000 products to break even (no profit) but the profit per product increases with each additional product sold. 4 (4pts). MTF The advice given to Austin residents (circa 1985) to avoid eating more than one fish a week from Town Lake was based on a concern that fish had high doses of chlordane levels (chlordane was a pesticide used in termite treatment). The advice that “eating one fish per week is OK but eating 2 or more per week is not OK” involves A) extrapolation across species (fish to humans) B) extrapolation across doses C) extrapolation across related hazards D) a linear extrapolation Errors in Data 5. (4pts) Winning rates at the slot machines at two different casinos are compared for a single day. There is some difference in the average rate between the casinos. Data are then collected for a month of winnings, and the difference between the two casinos is greatly reduced. What type of error underlies most of the differences in daily winning rates Bio301D Exam 2; 18 Oct 2006 1 28 Questions, 7 pages
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name _________________ between the casinos? One answer only . Sampling error is indicated by the fact that the differences ‘are greatly’ reduced as more data were collected. A)
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ex2ab06_annotated - name(required Extrapolation and...

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