ex4ab03 - CPS questions(1-6 Intrinsic Difficulties 1-2...

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CPS questions (1-6) Intrinsic Difficulties 1-2. These questions ask for the course theme(s) best illustrated by the given statement. Do not assume any more than what is explicitly given in the question . MTF (A) Rare events are difficult to quantify (B) Time lags slow progress (C) Complexity (interactions) (D) Humans make difficult experimental subjects (E) None 1. (4pts) The daughters of women who took DES during pregnancy acquired cancer more often than did the daughters of women who did not take this drug during pregnancy. However, these cancer cases generally did not appear until these offspring were twenty to thirty years old. Consequently, DES -- a harmful drug -- was used for several decades before the harmful effect was discovered. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2. (4pts) Lifespan shows numerous correlations with diet and health, but it is difficult to identify cause and effect. First, it is difficult or impossible to do the necessary experiments with humans because of cost and compliance issues. Second, it may take decades to observe the effect of someone’s diet today. And there are potentially hundreds of problems caused by the fact that the effect of one item in a diet (e.g., fat content) depends on what else is in the diet. Thus, one should not hope for a speedy understanding of what kinds of foods provide the greatest longevity. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 3. (6 pts) Which of the following options describe(s) an outcome that stems from a "tragedy of the commons" conflict or correctly identifies a tragedy of the commons pattern? You may assume that what is stated in each option is true; the question is whether it describes a tragedy of the commons phenomenon. (MTF) (A) Three unrelated people buy a ranch together. They calculate that, with the current market prices, their best plan is to graze more than the recommended number of cattle on their land, sell the beef for a profit, and invest the money in bonds. This plan fails because the price of beef falls before their beef get sold. In future years, their overgrazed land only supports half the number of livestock that it would have if they had not overgrazed. (B) Physicians often face a conflict between what is the best treatment for the patient and what treatment will most benefit the physician. This conflict arises because drug companies entice physicians to sell company products, even when those products are not the best treatments available. (C) Some diseases for which we have vaccines, such as influenza and measles, are caused by viruses that are transmitted from person to person. The number of people exposed to these viruses depends on how many people get vaccinated. As more people get vaccinated, the rate at which unvaccinated people get the disease declines – herd immunity. People who, for their own personal reasons, refuse to get vaccinated for these diseases increase the risk that others in the population (who are not vaccinated) will get the diseases. (D) Vaccines cause us to develop immunity against particular toxins, viruses, or bacteria. Some diseases for which we
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course BIO 301D taught by Professor Bull during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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ex4ab03 - CPS questions(1-6 Intrinsic Difficulties 1-2...

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