Ex4ab07_comments - 1(4 pts Key code ID and name Fill in(A B to indicate your key for this version of the exam Be sure your name and ID number are

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1. (4 pts) Key code, ID #, and name . Fill in (A B) to indicate your key for this version of the exam. Be sure your name and ID number are correctly bubbled in on the scantron and that you have signed this exam copy. See the page displayed on the big screen for details of where your ID number goes. Intrinsic Difficulties 2. (5 pts) Which of the following are true? MTF A) The coin flip demo during the intrinsic difficulties lecture was used to illustrate how rare events could be generated merely through sampling error. This demo was not done in 2008; it was used to illustrate a method of biasing a study, nothing to do with rare events. B) The flash powder demonstration illustrated that a fundamentally different outcome could come from the combination of two things than from either alone; this was a type of interaction or complexity. Yes, the flash powder is a mix of two chemicals, neither of which alone would flash. C) Intrinsic difficulties’ refers to types of problems for which the scientific method cannot ultimately obtain answers, hence we need to find some other way of addressing those problems. No, intrinsic difficulties CAN be solved with the SM, they are just more challenging than most. D) The theme given that unites intrinsic difficulties is that they all stem from problems in evaluation (as opposed to data, models, or revision). No, most difficulties lie at the level of the SM itself, not in any one component. For example, ‘time lags’ slow the entire cycle of the SM. E) We noted that intrinsic difficulties are expected to become less important in the future, as societies develop a better understanding of the scientific method. No, the fact that the difficulties are ‘intrinsic’ means that the SM will always have difficulties. “Humans’ might become less of a problem if future generations decide to relax safeguards to protect us, but the others are out of our control 3-7. (3pts each) In the following problem descriptions, which intrinsic difficulties are indicated? Do not infer more than is described. The underlined part of the question illustrates the problem that needs to be addressed by your answer. Use the following options for your answers: (one per question) (A) Time lags (B) Rare events (C) Humans make difficult subjects (D) Interactions/ complexity (E) None 3. The drug DES was used in the 1940s into the 1970s to suppress miscarriage. It was discovered that the drug caused elevated cancer rates. Which intrinsic difficulty explains why the drug was used for 30+ years before it was withdrawn ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) one only Time lags. This one required that you rely on notes from lecture (and maybe the book). The problem was that the cancer happened in the offspring of the mothers who took the drug, and it arose in the daughters in their 20s and 30s. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course BIO 301D taught by Professor Bull during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Ex4ab07_comments - 1(4 pts Key code ID and name Fill in(A B to indicate your key for this version of the exam Be sure your name and ID number are

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