ex4ab09 - Exam 4, Bio301D, 2 Dec 09 name _ (required) 1. (4...

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name _______________________ (required) page 1 of 6 1. (4 pts) Key code, EID , and name . Fill in (A B) to indicate your key for this version of the exam. Be sure your name and EID number are correctly bubbled in on the scantron and that you have put your name on this exam copy. Brain Flaws 2. (4pts) Lecture listed and explained several ways in which our brains are intrinsically prone to mislead us (away from the scientific truth). Which of the following are true? MTF A) Searching for additional evidence to find out whether a particular model is supported is an example of reinforcement. B) Lotto advertisements that show actual winners but not the millions of losers was said to take advantage of our responding to perceived risks rather than actual risks. C) The spread of urban legends and success of scams would be an example of drawing causation from correlation. D) The use of anecdotes, responding to emotional factors , and memory reconstruction were all included in the list. 3 (5pts) Lecture on this topic was introduced with a perspective for the themes/chapters that would be presented for the remainder of the semester. All were reasons why it may be difficult to obtain or recognize scientific ‘truth’. Which are true? MTF A) Nature works against us. Some problems are not easily attacked/approached with the scientific method because they have properties that slow or thwart the scientific method. B) Our brains work against us so that we often do not objectively look at evidence in making decisions. C) The scientific method works against us because (as before) all models are false. D) Other people work against us – conflict. E) It was suggested that most of these difficulties could be overcome by having multiple people analyze the data. Intrinsic Difficulties 4. (5pts) Which of the following options accurately explains an intrinsic difficulty and/or correctly explains why it constitutes a special difficulty for the scientific method? MTF A) Rare events: this difficulty refers to sampling error and the consequence that one needs to observe at least half a dozen occurrences to reasonably estimate a rate. B) Complexity: this difficulty refers to the general phenomenon that problems in science are often much more complicated than first guessed. C) Humans make difficult subjects: This problem is primarily that humans are uncooperative research subjects. D) Time lags: this difficulty slows down the scientific method. A delay between the cause of an outcome and the time the effect appears introduces a delay in each cycle of the scientific method. E) Rare events: a ‘dispersed’ event (not concentrated in time or space) was given in the book as one manifestation of a rare event. F) Complexity:
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course BIO 301D taught by Professor Bull during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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ex4ab09 - Exam 4, Bio301D, 2 Dec 09 name _ (required) 1. (4...

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