Exam 4, Biology 301D, 8 December 2000
Printed name ________________
1. (2 pts
Social security number and name
. Fill in the scantron form with the correct bubbles for your name and social
security number. Put your name on this exam. It is now a requirement that you turn in your exam hard copy with your name, so
that we can verify the version you took. If your hard copy does not match your scantron, we will change the scantron to match it
(or give you a zero if we cannot find your hard copy).
: Fill in (
) and (
) on scantron question 1. to indicate your exam code.
None, one, all, or any combination of individual answers apply to each question in this exam (except for "key code"
. If any part of an option is incorrect, treat the entire option as incorrect.
2. (10 pts)
Which of the following options describe(s) an outcome that stems from a "tragedy of the commons" conflict or
correctly identifies an issue that pertains to tragedy of the commons? None, one or many.
(A) Three people develop an investment portfolio together, contributing equally to the initial capital (money) they invest.
One person is put in charge of managing the fund, but this person neglects the fund and, as a consequence, they all lose
(B) There is often a conflict between farmers and chemical companies over the use of pesticides. The outcome of this
conflict is that the farmer often spends more money than necessary on pesticides and even suffers crop loss because of it.
(C) Global warming is now thought to be a result of the burning of fossil fuels around the world (fossil fuels are coal and
oil). Over millions of years, plants converted carbon dioxide into oxygen and plant material. Burning this ancient plant
material (which now takes the form of oil and coal) reverses the process and releases carbon dioxide, which helps the
earth's atmosphere trap heat. Although every country is at risk from global warming for one reason or another (e.g., from
changing weather patterns), each country is opposed to reducing its use of fossil fuels, because such reductions have
negative effects on the country's economy. Furthermore, because the gases released from the burning of these fuels are
spread throughout the globe, countries that burn more fuels benefit directly while distributing the cost around the world.
(D) Some vaccines, such as that against tetanus, do not provide herd immunity, because they vaccinate against an agent
that is not infectious from person to person. (consider the previous statement true.) Therefore, the tragedy of the commons
conflict does not apply to these cases, because there is no benefit to the group of having everyone vaccinated (aside from
possible costs to health care).