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Edwards Chapter Twelve

Edwards Chapter Twelve - Unit 8 Edwards and Wayne Chapter...

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Unit 8 Edwards and Wayne: Chapter 12- Domestic Policy Making 1. The Development of a Policy-Making Role a. Beginning with T. Roosevelt presidents began formulating policy b. Wilson used the state of the union to propose initiatives c. Institutionalizing Presidential Initiatives i. Roosevelt shaped contemporary expectations of the presidency 1. During the 100 Days, numerous initiatives were proposed and passed 2. Established the president’s role in domestic policy ii. Eisenhower was criticized for not proposing enough legislation iii. By the end of the 1960s, domestic policy initiative was firmly established d. Changing Policy Environment i. Following the prosperity of the 1960s the economy weakened in the 1970s and early 1980s leading many to doubt the government’s power to fix problems ii. Since Nixon presidents have tried to slow or reverse the government’s interference in domestic affairs iii. Under Reagan federal programs were shrunk even more 2. The Office of Management and Budget and the Executive Branch a. Exercising Central Clearance i. Bureau of the Budget was created in 1921 to help the president prepare an annual budget to be submitted to Congress ii. Creates budget based on requests from departments and the president’s priorities iii. Central Clearance Process 1. Put presidential approval on certain programs and identified those it opposed 2. Made departments and agencies more aware of each other 3. Helped resolve interagency disputes and promoted coordination b. Issuing Statements of Administration Policy i. Issues a SAP on most bills approved by Congressional committees 1. Informs members of Congress about the administration’s positions on issues ii. Presidents cannot directly dictate to Congress but can usually prevent the enactment of bills they oppose iii. OMB lobbies for the president’s budget and appropriations c. Coordinating Executive Branch Advice i. Once legislation is enacted by Congress, OMB advises the president to approve or veto it
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ii. Departments make recommendations and the OMB summarizes them and makes its own recommendation iii. President usually follows the advice iv. OMB has most influence on the president’s decision 1. Says no most often so when it approves it is accepted d. Reviewing Agency Regulations i. After approval, executive branch departments and agencies must implement it 1. Regulations must be created 2. Regulatory Review process was created in 1981 a. Requires all regulations to be reviewed for necessity, cost- effectiveness and consistence with the administration’s goals b. Those affected by regulations are asked for opinions c. Has increased the OMB’s influence e. Overseeing Executive Orders i. OMB reviews executive orders before the president announces them 1. Makes sure they are legal and constitutional ii.
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