Chemistry Final Review

Chemistry Final Review - Chapter 1: Chemistry Matter &...

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Scientific Method: Hypothesis- tentative explanation or prediction that MUST BE TESTABLE. Test hypothesis by an experiment From this experiment you obtain scientific data Scientific data provides patterns that can be summarized into scientific laws (statements does this fit into the hypothesis or scientific laws?) Scientific Theories: produces explanations for a natural phenomena & PREDICTIONS that CAN be TESTED by further experiments -Scientific Theory Frame work of organizing scientific knowledge -Hypothesis & theories CAN be DISPROVED -Gain scientific data by measurements Measurements- fundamental SI units Table 1.3 page 8. Physical Quantity Name of Unit Symbol of Unit Length Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Time Second S Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd Table 1.4 Some Common SI Prefixes Multiple Prefix 10 12 tera (T) 10 9 giga (G) 10 6 mega (M) 10 3 kilo (k) 10 2 hecto (h) 10 1 deca (da) 10 -1 deci (d) 10 -2 centi (c) 10 -3 milli (m) 10 -6 micro (µ) 10 -9 nano (n) 10 -12 pico (p) Area length 2 SI m 2 Density mass/volume (volume is always in volume 3 ) SI kg/m 3 for volume because the SI unit(s) of mass = kg and volume = m 3 So what do you do in order to convert?—you convert kilograms grams centigrams milligrams—factor of 10 or metric system see table 1.4 on page 8 (MEMORIZE). 1
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Some common non-SI units are convenient such as: 1. Pressure atmosphere (atm) or torr (SI unit Pa) 2. Volume in Liters (dm 3 decimeter) -Chemistry is a study of composition, structure, and properties of matter and of changes that occur in matter. -Matter is anything that has mass & occupies space (wood, sand, people, water & air etc.) -Atoms are the smallest distinctive units in a sample of matter -Molecules are larger units in which 2 OR MORE atoms are joined together (2 of the same, 2 of another and 1 of a different atom ALL = MOLECULES) -Composition refers to types of atoms and the relative proportions of the different atoms in a sample of matter. -Physical property is a characteristic displayed by a sample of matter without undergoing any change in its composition (boiling water—doesn’t change the composition of H 2 O its still water in liquid or gas form). -Quantitative physical property—associated with numbers (mass, melting point etc.). -Qualitative—associated with observation of (touch, smell, color, odor, brittleness etc.). WHERE THINGS CHANGE = the following: -Chemical property—characteristic displayed by a sample of matter as it undergoes a change in composition. (Common example rusting of Iron (Fe) iron is exposed to O 2 molecules in the air and therefore it turns a grayish metallic color and then changes the iron into iron oxide due to the oxygen molecule exposure). And therefore a new chemical formula is derived. -ANY TIME A
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Chemistry Final Review - Chapter 1: Chemistry Matter &...

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