Psych Outline Alya

Psych Outline Alya - Chapter 5 Learning Learning: any...

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Chapter 5 Learning Learning: any relatively permanent change in the way an organism responds based on its experience o i.e the wolf and lithium chloride in the sheep learning is essentially about prediction- predicting future from past experiences reflex: a behavior that is elicited automatically by an environmental stimulus stimulus: an object or event in the environment that elicits a response in an organism habituation: the decreasing strength of a response after repeated presentation of the stimulus theories of learning share three responses: o experience shapes behavior o learning is adaptive o careful experimentation can uncover laws of learning, many of which apply to human and nonhuman animals alike learning theory is the foundation of the behaviorist perspective classical and operant conditioning = associative learning association: the role of thought and social experience in learning laws of association: first proposed by Aristotle, basic principles used to account for learning and memory, that describe the conditions under which one thought becomes connected or associated with another o law of contiguity: two events will become connected in the mind if they are experienced close together in time (i.e. thunder and lightning) o law of similarity: objects resemble each other, such as two people with similar faces, are likely to become associated associations (school of thought created by Aristotle) asserts that our complex thoughts are ultimately nothing but elementary perceptions that become associated and then recombined in the mind goal= to create science of behavior Classical Conditioning classical conditioning: a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is paired with a stimulus that automatically elicits that response; the first type of learning to be systematically studied. Dog and bell… even without food heard bell and began to salivate expecting food Pavlov’s Model Conditioning: a form of learning Unconditioned reflex: a reflex that occurs naturally, without any prior learning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that produces a reflexive response without any prior learning o Example: food Unconditioned response (UCR): an organism’s learned, automatic response to a stimulus o Example: salivation Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that does not normally elicit the response in question (in Pavlov’s case, the ringing bell) Conditioned response (CR): in classical conditioning, a response that has been learned Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that the organism has learned to associate with the unconditioned stimulus – this is what the bell became to signal food Conditioned Responses Conditioned Taste Aversions A learned aversion to a taste associated with an unpleasant feeling, usually nausea o People who were pregnant often can’t eat foods even after pregnancy because remember sick feelings
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course PSYCHLOGY 830 taught by Professor Jacobs during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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Psych Outline Alya - Chapter 5 Learning Learning: any...

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