Psychology Outline Chapter 1

Psychology Outline Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Psychology The...

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Chapter 1 Psychology: The Study of Mental Processes and Behavior Psychology -the scientific investigation of mental processes (thinking, remembering, feeling, etc.) and behavior. Understanding a person requires attention to the individual’s biology, psychological experience, and cultural context. Research In Depth—The Blue-Eyes Have It! The purpose of the exercise with this particular group was to ensure that employees were sufficiently sensitive to minority inmates. The method used in the exercise mirrored that used with the third graders. The blue-eyed adults who were made to feel inferior said that it made them feel powerless and hopeless. The Boundaries and Borders of Psychology Biology and culture establish both the possibilities and the constraints within which people think, feel, and act. The capacity for love has its roots in the innate tendency of infants to develop an emotional attachment to their caretakers. These are biological givens. BUT though love may be a basic potential, the way people love depends on the values, beliefs, and practices of their society. The Boundary with Biology Biopsychology (behavioral neuroscience) —is the field that examines the physical basis of psychological phenomena such as motivation, emotion, and stress. Neuroscientists —explore and investigate the electrical and chemical processes in the nervous system that underlie these mental events. Lesions are produced surgically in different neural regions in animals to observe the effects on the brain (used in research on emotion—begun to identify the neural pathways involved in fear reactions). Psychologists in this research lesion ne brain structure at a time along pathways they hypothesize are involved when rats learn to fear an object associated with pain—when lesion disrupts learning, the researcher knows that the lesioned area/other areas connected to it are involved in fear. Localization of Function— the extent to which different parts of the brain control different aspects of functioning. Contemporary neuroscientists no longer believe that complex psychological functions happen exclusively in a single localized part of the brain. BUT RATHER, the circuits for psychological events, such as emotions or thoughts, are distributed throughout the brain, with each part contributing to the total experience. Large part of these technological advances—psychology has become increasingly biological over the past decade, as behavioral neuroscience has extended into virtually all areas of psychology. The Boundary with Culture To what extent do cultural differences create psychological differences? What can we make of someone who becomes terrified because he believes that a quarrel with kin has offended the forest and may bring disaster upon his family? Does he share our psychological nature, or does each society produce its own psychology?
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