Psychology Outline Chapter 17

Psychology Outline Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 Interpersonal...

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Chapter 17: Interpersonal Processes At the beginning of the chapter the concept of “pay it forward” is discussed. Catherine Ryan Hyde: Her car broke down in a dangerous part of downtown Los Angeles 2 men came running w/ blankets to put out the fire on the engine of her car When she went to thank them (who seemed to have acted w/ no concern for their own personal safety they had left. She thought about their kindness and how she would never be able to repay those 2 gentlemen so she thought she could “pay it forward” by helping someone else in need. Hyde did this by helping yet another woman who was having car troubles and the “pay it forward” method just stuck. PIF (paying it forward)—do not have to be major events, small tokens of kindness that benefit others can lead others to be motivated to behave similarly toward others. Samuel Oliner: 12 YO (years old) who lived in the Jewish ghetto in Poland where Nazi’s invaded and his entire family was killed. He (Samuel) managed to escape and hid for 2 days and saw a child bayoneted and a baby shot w/ a pistol, he found his way to the home of a Christian woman whom his father had done business. She took him in fed him and taught him how to pass as a Christian peasant and he survived the war. Oliner wrote a book about the small number of people who risked their lives and the lives of their families to protect the Jews during the Holocaust. He wanted an answer to a simple question “What made the rescuers perform such extraordinary acts of altruism?” “The altruism of these individuals seems to defy theories of moral development. During the war everyone in Germany and its occupied countries faced the same contingencies of reinforcement—to be caught rescuing Jews meant certain execution—but several thousand people did so nonetheless. Moral heroism should only occur among people w/ high level of moral reasoning. Rescuers differed from non-rescuers on both situational variables and dispositional variables . Situational Variables -aspects of the situation that interact w/ aspects of the person to produce behavior. Dispositional Variables - personalities and attitudes. One situational variable that distinguished the 2 groups was the fact that rescuers had more available rooms in their houses and were more likely to have a cellar. However on the dispositional side, rescuers reported having come from closer-knit families and having had parents who sometimes reasoned w/ them as a mode of discipline rather than simply punishing them. Understanding why some people risked their lives while others did nothing—and why still others have used ultranationalist ideology as an excuse to steal, rape, and murder—is the work of social psychologists.
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