Chapter 5 Skeleton Notes

Chapter 5 Skeleton Notes - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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1 CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I Ch.5: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 1 Water: A Vital Natural Resource! Significance of Water: “No single measure would do more to reduce disease and save lives in the developing world than bringing safe water & adequate sanitation to all.” UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, 2003 International Year of Freshwater Water is probably the only natural resource to touch all aspects of human civilization —from agricultural and industrial development to 2 Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General, UNESCO
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2 Properties of Water Vital for Molecular Behaviour Protein Folding, Activity & Drug Binding Ion Hydration, Sodium Pumps Sodium Ion 3 Human Serum Albumin (HSA) Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl iClicker Question #1 Which intermolecular force accounts for water’s unusual high b.p.? (a) Ion-dipole (b) Dipole-dipole (c) H-bonding (d) Van der Waals (e) none of the above 4
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3 Water: An Enigmatic Medium! Unique Macroscopic Properties Essential to Life 1. Unusually high boiling point (b.p.) of liquid water at STP: 2. Density of ice (0.92 g/mL) < liquid water (1 g/mL) at 0 o C: 3 . High specific heat capacity of water (74 J/mol . K at STP): 4 Water dissolves a variety of solutes as a solvent 5 4. Water dissolves a variety of as a solvent: 41 Anomalies of Water: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/anmlies.html ± Solubilization of polar/ionic solutes: Hydration ± Spontaneous ( Δ G o < 0) favorable H 2 O-solute interactions: H bonding (dipole dipole) with solutes (OHNHC = O Solute Solvation by Water H-bonding (dipole-dipole) with solutes (O-H, N-H , C=O) +/- ion-dipole forces Na + δ - δ + δ - δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ - δ - Ion-dipole interactions Cl - δ + δ - δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ - δ - Hydration shell 6 CH 3 CH 2 O-H Na δ δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ - δ - δ - δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ - δ + δ - δ− δ− δ− δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ +
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4 ± Water auto-ionization: Water is a Auto-ionization of Water 2H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) K w H H O H H O H H H .. O H - + O H O H H Base Acid Hydronium Hydroxide Transition State .. 7 Electrolytes Why isn’t [H 2 O] included in equilibrium expression? Non-electrolyte Strong electrolyte Weak electrolyte 8 Neutral molecule Fully charged ions Partially ionized molecule Degree of ionization of an electrolyte in aqueous solution! Fig. 5-3, p. 143- 146
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5 Solutes as Electrolytes 1. Strong electrolyte (Ionic) Sodium Chloride: + Intravenous supply of electrolytes 2. Weak electrolyte (Weakly Ionic) Acetic Acid: Vinegar (5-8% w) Preservative/Sour Conductive ions CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a = 4.8 p NaCl(aq) Na (aq)
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2010 for the course CHEM 1a03 taught by Professor Landry during the Spring '08 term at McMaster University.

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Chapter 5 Skeleton Notes - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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