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20101005124137293 (1)

20101005124137293 (1) - Somo la Kumi na Tatu MAZUNGUMZO...

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Unformatted text preview: Somo la Kumi na Tatu MAZUNGUMZO Mazungumzo — Kuwa na Nafasi Mwalimu: Je, ulikuwa na nafasi ya kusoma kabla ya kuja darasani leo asubuhi? WWW ‘ ‘ Amwmw-W , WWMMW JWWAWW, WWW Mwanafunzi: La, sikusoma, sikuwa na nafasi. Mwalimu: Kwa sababu gani hukuwa na nafasi? Mwanafunzi: N ilikuwa mgonjwa usiku; kwa hivyo nilichelewa kuamka leo asubuhi. Mwalimu: Utakuwa na nafasi ya kusoma 160? Mwanafunzi: Ndiyo, nitasoma leo usiku saa tatu hivi. Mwalimu: Verna, kutakuwa na mtihani kesho. MAZOEZI 1. Zoezi la kwanza wewe Ulichelewa kuamka leo asubuhi? La, sikuchelewa. yeye Alichelewa kuamka leo asubuhi? La, hakuchelewa. ninyi Mlichelewa kuamka leo asubuhi? La, hatukuchelewa. wao Walichelewa kuamka leo asubuhi? La, hawakuchelewa. 2. Zoezi la pili —chelewa Ulichelewa jana? La, sikuchelewa. —soma Ulisoma jana? La, sikusoma. -fanya kazi Ulifanya kazi jana? La, sikufanya kazi. —fundisha Ulifundisha jana? La, sikufundisha. —(ku)ja Ulikuja jana? La, sikuja. —(ku)la Ulikula jana? La, sikula. —enda mjini U1i(kw)enda mjini jana? La, sikuenda/sikwenda. 3. Zoezi la tatu kila siku Je, una nafasi ya kusoma kila siku? La, sina nafasi kila siku. kesho Je, utakuwa na nafasi ya kusoma kesho? La, sitakuwa na nafasi kesho. jana Je, ulikuwa na nafasi kusoma jana? La, Slkuwa na nafasi jana. themanini na moja 81 Somo Ia Kumi na Tatu 4. Zoezi la nne La, mimi si mgonjwa sasa. Wewe ni mgonjwa sasa? La, sikuwa mgonjwa usiku. sasa usiku Ulikuwa mgonjwa usiku? kesho Utakuwa mgonjwa kesho? La, sitakuwa mgonjwa kesho. 5. Zoezi Ia tano Kuna mtihani sasa? sasa Hapana, hakuna mtihani sasa. jana Kulikuwa na mtihani jana? Hapana, hakukuwa na mtihani jana. kesho Kutakuwa na mtihani kesho? Hapana, hakutakuwa na mtihani kesho. ZOEZI LA KUSOMA oni Katika Miji na Mashambani Kwenda Sok ga wa kutosha iii kuwapikia a Juma alikuwa sokoni; hakuwa na un Leo asubuhi mam le. Jambo hili ni 1a kawaida kwa watu watoto ugali. Pia alitaka kuwanunulia nguo za shu Watu wengi wanakwenda sokoni na madukani katika miji ya Afrika ya Mashariki. ali. Kwa kawaida kununua mahitaji yao, kama vyakula, na nguo, 11a Vitu Vingine mbalimb hi. Wanakwenda kila siku kwa sabab ' a. Vyakula hiVi vinaoza‘ upesi, kwa wanakwenda 333 2a asubu u wengi hawana mahali pa mea wauzaji wa masokoni na wa madukani kwa kupata kula. Watu wa mijini wanawatege vyakula vyao. Wao Si wakulima au wavuvi. Hawalimi na hawavui samaki. Basi, kuna mbali katika miji, masoko ya mboga, ya nyama, ya samaki, ya nguo, na ya a masoko haya kwa mahitaji yao. endi kila siku. Kila masoko mbali dhaa. Wenyeji wa miji wanategeme Vitu ka i kuna masoko pia, lakini watu hawa Katika sehemu za mashamban kwenda sokoni. Watu ni wakuiima; wengine ni wachungaji; na wiki kuna siku moja tu ya kama watu wanakaa karibu na maji, ni wavuvi pia. W da na kulima na kuvua chakula chao. Lakini hawawezi kulima chakul wanapan k0 wataenda kununua Vitu kama chote; kwa hivyo katika siku ya so chai, na sukari, 82 themanini na mbili Somo la Kumi na Tatu vJAuzmi MATUfiPA na vitu Vingine. Kama wana mazao mengi, kama ndizi, machungwa, na matunda me— ngine, na mbOga kadhaa, watauza mengine na kutumia pesa kwa kujinunulia mahitaji yao. Kwa mfano, mtu atauza ndizi kwa kupata pesa ili kununua vitunguu au unga wa ma— hindi, au nguo. Watu hawaendi sokoni ili kuuza na kununua tu; mara kwa mara wanakwenda kuwa— ona watu wengine na kuzungumza na rafiki zao. Hata mijini watu wanapenda kwenda so- koni kwa sababu huko wana nafasi ya kuwaona na kuzungumza na rafiki zao. Lakini leo asubuhi Mama Juma hakuzungumza na rafiki zake kwa sababu hakuwa na nafasi. lVinaoza 'they are rotting‘; vi— is a subject prefix agreeing with vyakula; see Somo 1a Kumi na Nne, Grammar Note 3. themanini na tatu 83 Somo Ia Kumi na Tatu Maswali 1. Katika masoko watu wana naf 2. Watu wa mijini wanaenda sok 3. Na watu wa mashambani, je? ' lima chakula cha kutosha kwa mahitaji yao? unua vitu gani katika soko? asi ya kufanya nini? oni kila siku? Kwa sababu gani? HABARI ZA SARUFI 1. The Past Tense -li Use the —li- tense marker to indicate past action: ni—li-amka 'I got up.‘ ni—li—chelewa '1 was late.’ ni-li-soma ‘l studied/read.‘ 2. The -ku- Tense 0 Use the -ku— tense marke the -li— tense: r together with the negative subject prefixes to negate si—ku—amka ‘I didn't get up' si-ku—chelewa 'I wasn't late' si—ku—soma 'I didn't read/study' 3. Monosyllabic Stems with -1i- and -ku- 0 With the -li— tense, the ~ku- of the infinitive of monosy r, it is not used with the -ku- tense; compare: llabic stems is used; how— eve a—li—kuja 'he came‘ _ ha—ku-ja 'he did not come‘ a—li—kula 'he ate' ha—ku-la 'he did not eat' a—li—(kw)enda 'he came' 1 ha-kwenda 'he did not go' ay; then, that the e infinitive marker; one could s nitival o The -ku— tense is historically th dding negative subject prefixes to the infi 'Past Negative' tense is formed by a form of the verb. 4. The Past and Future Forms of 'To Be' 0 Ni and si are used in Swahili to express English 'am‘ (not)/is (not)/are (not)': Mimi ni mgonjwa. 'I am sick (a sickzperson).v Sisi ni wagonjwa. 'We are sick (sick peo’ple).‘ Yeye si mwuzaji. 'She is not aseller.‘ Wao si wauzaji. 'They are not sellers.‘ 0 For past and future tenses of ni and si, the verb kuwa"'to be‘ is used with appropriate tense/ aspect prefixes: Nilikuwa mgonjwa. 'I was sick.‘ ‘I was not sick.‘ Sikuwa mgonjwa. Nitakuwa Ingonjwa. 'I will be Sick.‘ Sitakuwa mgonjwa. ‘I will not be sick.‘ - Kuwa is a monosyllabic verb and follows the same pattern as kuja, kula, etc. 84 themanini na nne Somo la Kumi na Tatu 5. The Past and Future Forms of 'To Have' 0 The particle ~na with appropriate subject prefixes is used to express ’have/has': Nina nafasi. 'I have time/opportunity.‘ Tuna nafasi. 'We have time/opportunity.‘ 0 To express past and future of 'have', the verb kuwa na 'to be with' (thus 'to have') is used: Nilikuwa na nafasi. ’I had a chance.’ Sikuwa na nafasi. 'I didn't have a chance.’ Nitakuwa na nafasi. 'I will have time.’ Sitakuwa na nafasi. 'I will not have time.’ 6. The Past and Future Forms of 'There Is/T here Are' 0 Kuna is used to express 'there is/there are'. Ku— is a subject prefix which refers to place; compare this with ku- in kule ,'there': Kuna ndizi kule mezani. 'There are bananas there on the table.’ 0 Past and future forms, positive and negative, of kuna are formed with kuwa na: Kulikuwa na mtihani jana. 'There was an exam yesterday.’ Hakukuwa na mtihani jana. 'There wasn't an exam yesterday.‘ Kutakuwa na mtihani kesho. 'There will be an exam tomorrow.’ Hakutakuwa na mtihani kesho. 'There won't be an exam tomorrow.‘ ZOEZI LA NYUMBANl Tafsiri 1. I was very hungry yesterday. 2. If he is not hungry now, he will be hungry this evening. 3. I did not have an opportunity to study. 4. I will have a chance to study tonight. 5. I did not study yesterday; I went to work. Badilisha kwa Kiswahili 1. I have . 9. I will work I had 10. I will not work I will have 1 1. I did not work I will not have 12. I am not working I did not have 13. There will be I don't have 14. There was not I am working 15. There are I worked 16. There are not 90999993?) themanini na tano 85 Somo Ia Kumi na Tatu 1. Maneno ya Mazungumzo na Mazoezi jana lea asubuhi mtihani mitihani nafasi (ku)wa (ku)wa na MSAMIATI yesterday this morning exam plural chance, opportunity, time (sg. and. pl.) (to) be (to) have 2. Maneno ya Zoezi Ia Kusoma 86 duka maduka hata hili hindi mahindi hivi i li kadhaa kuna mahali maj i mchungaji wachungaji mwenyej i wenyeji mwuzaji wauza j i nyama -0za rafiki rafiki marafiki upesi vinaoza -wekea themanini na sita store, shop plural up to, even this (for nouns such as duka, i.e., singular nouns with MA- plurals) grain of corn (maize) corn (grain) these (for plural nouns with VI— prefixes) in order that various (from Arabic; cf. mbalimbali) there is/are place (from Arabic) water herder plural inhabitant plural seller (cf. uza ‘sell') plural meat (usually sg.) rot, spoil friend plural collective plural quickly they are rotting (the y = nouns with Vi— plurals) keep in, put in (See -weka ‘keep, put') 14 Some la Kumi na Nne MAZUNGUMZO 1. Mazungumzo ya kwanza — Juma yuko wapi? Mwalimu: Kathy, umechelewa! Mwanafunzi: Ndiyo, mwalimu, nimechelewa kwa sababu basi ilichelewa. Mwalimu: Na Juma je, yuko wapi. Mwanafunzi: Sijui, pengine yuko nje. 2. Mazungumzo ya pili —— Kitabu kiko wapi? Mwalimu: Brian, una kitabu Chako? Mwanafunzi: Hapana, mwalimu. Mwalimu: Kiko wapi? Mwanafunzi: Sijui, mwalimu, hakipo hapa. Mwalimu: Kiko nyumbani? Mwanafunzi: Sijui, pengine kimepotea. 3. Mazungumzo ya tatu —- Saa iko wapi? Mwalimu: Je, Kathy, ni saa ngapi sasa? Mwanafunzi: Sijui, mwalimu, sina saa leo. Mwalimu: Iko wapi? Mwanafunzi: Imo mfukoni; imevunjika. MAZOEZI 1. Zoezi la kwanza Hamisi Hamisi yuko wapi? Yupo hapa? Sijui, hayupo hapa. Juma na Ali Juma na Ali wako wapi? Wapo hapa? Sijui, hawapo hapa. mwalimu Mwalimu yuko wapi? Yupo hapa? Sijui, hayupo hapa. walimu Walimu wako wapi? Wapo hapa? Sijui, hawapo hapa. themanini na saba 87 Somo Ia Kumi na Nne 2. Zoezi Ia pili kiti viti kitabu vitabu kalamu meza kalamu (p1.) meza (p1.) pesa (usually pl.) 3. Zoezi Ia tatu kitabu vitabu mfuko mkate mmea mifuko mimea 4. Zoezi la nne pesa kalamu kitabu daftari madaftari tunda matunda shati mashati Wino 5. Zoezi Ia tano baisikeli motokaa gari magari baisikeli (p1.) motokaa (pl.) 6.’ Zoezi la sita kalamu baisikeli (p1.) gari saa kiti magari viti baisikeli (sg.) 88 Kiti kiko wapi? Viti viko wapi? Kitabu kiko wapi? Vitabu viko wapi? Kalamu iko wapi? Meza iko wapi? Kalamu ziko wapi? Meza ziko wapi? Pesa ziko wapi? Kitabu kiko nyumbani? Vitabu viko nyumbani? Mfuko uko nyumbani? Mkate uko nyumbani? Mmea uko nyumbani? Mifuko iko nyumbani? Mimea iko nyumbani? Pesa zimo mfukoni? Kalamu imo mfukoni? Kitabu kimo mfukoni? Daftari limo mfukoni? Madaftari yamo mfukoni? Tunda limo mfukoni? Matunda yamo mfukoni? Shati limo mfukoni? Mashati yamo mfukoni? Wino umo mfukoni? Baisikeli iko wapi? Motokaa iko wapi? Gari liko wapi? Magari yako wapi? Baisikeli ziko wapi? Motokaa ziko wapi? Kalamu iko wapi? Baisikeli ziko wapi? Gari liko wapi? Saa iko wapi? Kiti kiko wapi? Magari yako wapi? Viti viko wapi? Baisikeli iko wapi? themanini na nane Pengine kiko nje. Pengine viko nje. Pengine kiko nje. Pengine viko nje. Pengine iko nje. Pengine iko nje. Pengine Ziko nje. Pengine ziko nje. Pengine ziko nje. La, hakiko kule. La, haviko kule. La, hauko kule. La, hauko kule. La, hauko kule. La, haiko kule. La, haiko kule. Ndiyo, zimo mfukoni. Ndiyo, imo mfukoni. Ndiyo, kimo mfukoni. Ndiyo, limo mfukoni. Ndiyo, yamo mfukoni. Ndiyo, limo mfukoni. Ndiyo, yamo mfukoni. Ndiyo, limo mfukoni. Ndiyo, yamo mfukoni. Ndiyo, umo mfukoni. Sijui, pengine imepotea. Sijui, pengine imepotea. Sijui, pengine limepotea. Sijui, pengine yamepotea. Sijui, pengine zimepotea. Sijui, pengine zimepotea. lko nyumbani; imevunjika. Ziko nyumbani; zimevunjika. Liko nyumbani; limevunjika. Iko nyumbani; imevunjika. Kiko nyumbani; kimevunjika. Yako nyumbani; yamevunjika. Viko nyumbani; vimevunjika. Iko nyumbani; imevunjika. Somo la Kumi na Nne $3 “ ' 71‘". x)" 2 i « §¥“ ZOEZI LA KUSOMA Masoko na Maduka Katika mji wa Nairobi kuna mahali pengi pa kuuza vitu, kama masoko na maduka. Kuna soko moja kubwa karibu na Chuo Kikuu, na katika mjtaa yote ya mji kuna masoko mengine. Vyakula vya aina mbalimbali Vinapatikana katika masoko, kwa mfano: mboga, na nyama, na matunda. Hali kadhalika kuna maduka ya kuuza Vitu kama vitabu; na mava— zi kama mashati, soksi, na suruali; maduka ya mahitaji ya shule kama wino, karatasi, kalamu, madaftari, na mifuko; na maduka ya vyombo vya nyumba—viti, meza na vitu themanini na tisa 89 Somo la Kumi na Nne dha. Pia kuna wauzaji wengine wa kuuza vitu vidogo mbalimbali na wao kadha wa ka hawana maduka au mahali pa kuuza Vitu katika masoko. Wana magari ya kuuza Vitu barabarani. Wanauza magazeti, an matunda kama ndizi na maembe, au chai. Baba Hamisi 90 tisini Somo la Kumi na Nne ni mmoja wao. Yeye ana gari la kuuza chai. Anawauzia wafanyakazi wa kiwanda cha kutengeneza Viatu; kwa hivyo gari lake liko karibu na kiwanda. Wafanyakazi wanapenda kununua chai wakati wa kwenda na kuondoka kazini. Maswali Soko kubwa liko wapi? Kuna masoko katika mitaa yote ya mji wa Nairobi? . Je, mboga zinapatikana wapi? Gari la Baba Hamisi liko karibu na Chuo Kikuu? Wafanyakazi wanapenda kununua chai wakati gani? wewwe HABARI ZA SARUFI 1. The Swahili Noun Class System 0 Throughout the preceding lessons we have seen numerous examples of forms which share a common meaning but which vary in shape, e.g. wa, ya, la, cha, vya, za, and pa, all meaning 'of‘, or mwingine, wengine, vingine, and mengine 'other, some'. These are part of the Swahili system of noun classification and agreement. 0 All nouns in Swahili are classified into sets according to their singular and plural shapes, and according to the agreement prefixes they govern, such as w-, y-, 1- etc. on —a 'of'. These sets are known as noun classes. Each class is numbered, or referred to by name—numbers according to a system used by linguists, and names according to the shapes of the prefixes or by commonly known noun. Thus, for example, the first set can be referred to as Class 1/2, the M—fWA— Class, or the Mtu/Watu Class. 0 Historically, noun classes in Bantu languages were characterized by specific se— mantic properties. For instance, there were noun classes which contained only the names of human beings, another for animals, a different one for elongated objects, and so forth. This system is still reflected in Swahili, but semantic shifts and borrow— ings from other languages have caused changes. For instance, Class 9/ 10, which ori- ginally contained only names of animals and kinship terms, today includes a semanti— cally divergent range of nouns because of borrowing from Arabic, English, Portu— guese, Indian languages, and others. 0 In the table below, each class is presented with examples and a statement of its general semantic properties. a. M-lWA- Class (Mtu/Watu) ——— Human beings Class 1 Class 2 m—tu 'person' wa—tu ’people' m-toto 'child' wa-toto 'children' mw—alimu 'teacher' w—alimu 'teachers' b. M-/MI- Class (Mti/Miti) ~— Trees, plants, etc. Class 3 Class 4 m—ti 'tree’ mi—ti 'trees m—chungwa ’orange tree' mi-chungwa 'orange trees‘ m—gomba 'banana plant’ mi—gomba ’banana plants' tisini na moja 91 Somo la Kumi na Nne The M—/MI— class also includes objects which are closely associated with living things, or which may be viewed as living: m—oto 'fire' mi—oto 'fires‘ m—oyo ‘heart' mi—oyo 'hearts‘ m—guu 'foot' mi-guu 'feet' c. JI-[MA- Class (Tunda/Matunda) ~ Fruits, parts of plants, etc. Class 5 Class 6 tunda 'piece of fruit’ ma—tunda 'fruit‘ tawi 'branch‘ ma—tawi 'branches' ua 'flower' ma—ua 'flowers' This class includes nouns which indicate quantities, or constituents of groups or sets, as well as mass nouns which have no singulars (e.g. liquids) and collectives: ji—we 'stone' ma-we 'stones’ ji—cho 'eye’ ma—cho 'eyes‘ ma—ji ‘water' ma—futa 'oil‘ Nouns in this class normally have (3 prefix in the singular, and ma- in the plural; the singular prefix ji— occurs only with nouns that have monosyllabic roots, such as ji—we and ji—cho 'eye‘. d. KI-IVI- CLASS (Kitu/Vitu) —~ Artifacts, useful objects, etc. Class 7 Class 8 ki~tu 'thing' vi-tu 'things' ki—ti 'chair‘ vi—ti 'chairs' ch—akula 'food' vy-akula 'foods' ch-uo 'school' vy-uo ’schools‘ Note that singular nouns have kl"- before stems that begin with a consonant, or ch- before vowel—initial stems; plurals have vi—, or vy— before vowel—intial stems. e. N-lN- Class (Ndizi/Ndizi) — Animals, kinship terms, borrowed words Class 9 Class 10 baisikeli 'bicycle‘ baisikeli 'bicycles‘ meza ‘table‘ meza 'tables‘ ny-ama 'meat' ny—ama ‘meats' Singular and plural nouns are identical in this class. Some have a nasal prefix (m-, n-, ny—, ng'—), e.g., ndizi 'banana/s', nguruwe 'pig/s', ng'ombe ‘cow/s', but many nouns have no prefix. Words whose stems begin with a vowel have a ny- prefix. The class includes the names of many animals and kinship terms. Most words which have been borrowed into Swahili from other languages, e.g., meza 'table' from Portuguese and kalamu 'pen' from Arabic, have fallen into this class. f. U-/N- Class (Upanga/Panga) —— Long, thin objects Class ll Class 10 u—kuta 'wall' kuta ‘walls' u—ma 'fork' ny—uma 'forks' w—akati 'time' ny—akati 'times‘ The prefix u- occurs before consonant-initial stems and w- before vowel—initial stems. The plurals in this class have N—Class (Class 10) shapes. 92 tisini na mbili Somo la Kumi na Nne g. U- Class (Uzuri) — Abstract qualities Class 14/(6) u—huru 'freedom' u-tu 'humanity' w-ema 'goodness w—ingi 'abundance’ u-gomvi 'contentiousness' ma—gomvi 'quarrels' u—levi 'drunkenness' ma-levi 'drunken habits, acts Most nouns in this class characteristically have no plurals, but there is a subset, whose roots mostly derive from verbs and which have ma- plurals. Note also that Class 11 and Class 14 nouns have identical prefixes: u- before consonant—initial stems, and w~ before vowel—initial stems. Note: Classes 12 and 13, which are found in other Bantu languages, have been lost in Swahili. Where they are found, they indicate diminutives. h. KU- Class (Kutaka) — Infinitives, verbal nouns Class 15 ku—nunua 'to buy, act of buying' ku-uza 'to sell, act of buying' kw-enda 'to go, act of going' i. PA-/KU-/MU- Class — Locatives Class 16 hapa 'right here' (definite location) Class 17 huku 'around here' (general location) Class 18 humu 'inside here' (internal location) Classes 16, 17, and 18 contain no nouns as such. However, any noun with the locative suffix -ni (meza ’table', meza-ni 'on, at, in, etc. the table') is a locative noun and a member of this class. The affixes pa—, ku—, and m(u)~ indicate different aspects of place: definite, general, and internal location as illustrated by the "proximate" demonstratives above. 2. Agreement The noun class system is not only important for the way nouns are pluralized or categorized into sets, but also for determining agreement and concord. Each singular and plural noun class governs a set of agreement prefixes which occur on adjectives, demonstratives, possessives, verbs, and other forms. For instance, in previous lessons we have seen the following examples of agreement : ma—somo y—a Kiswahili 'Swahili lessons' m—singi w-a kusema 'a foundation for speaking' mi—ti y—a matunda 'fruit trees mw—anafunzi m—moja 'one student' wa—tu wa-wili 'two people' ch—uo ki—kuu 'university' ch—akula ch—a asubuhi 'breakfast' (food of morning) jSna l-angu 'my name' (0 = no prefix on the noun) vy—akula vi—naoza 'the foods are rotting' j-ambo hi—li 'this matter/affair' ma—somo y—a Kiswahili 'Swahili lessons' flserikali i—nasaidia 'the government is helping' tisini na tatu 93 Somo la Kumi na Nn 3. Subject Agreement 94 0 We have seen that in Swahili verbs agree with their subjects: Mimi ninajitegemea. Sisi tunajitegemea. Wewe unajitegemea. Ninyi mnajitegemea. Yeye anajitegemea. Wao wanajitegemea. Mzee anajitegemea. Wazee wanajitegemea. Up till this lesson we have only seen bits and pieces of the noun class system. Now we are learning how other sentence constituents govern class agreement or concord, and in subsequent lessons we Will see that this system pervades the whole grammar of the language. 0 All subject nouns——animate or inanimate, and regardless of class membership—- agree with the verb of the sentence. Each noun class has its own set of prefixes or concords; in the following chart, subject prefixes, both positive and negative, are given. Note in some cases the noun and verbal prefixes are similar—~these are the easiest to learn——while in others they are different: Class Noun Subject Prefixes Positive Negative 1 m—tu a— / yu— ha— / hayu— 2 wa—tu wa— hawa— 3 m—ti u— hau- 4 mi—ti i- hai— 5 fl—tunda li— hali— 6 ma—tunda ya— haya- 7 ki—tu ki- haki— 8 vi-tu vi— havi— 9 n-dizi i— hai- lO n—dizi zi— hazi— l 1 u-limi u— hau— l4 u-huru u— hau— 15 ku-taka ku- haku— 16 meza—n...
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