CH 2 - CH.2.lifeschemicalbasis Objectives 1.,electrons, 2....

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CH. 2. life’s chemical basis   Objectives:   1.     Understand how protons, electrons, and neutrons are arranged into atoms and ions.   2.     Explain how the distribution of electrons in an atom or ion determines the number and kinds of  chemical            bonds that can be formed.   3.     Know the various types of chemical bonds, the circumstances under which each forms, and the  relative            strengths of each type.   4.     Understand the essential chemistry of water and of some common substances dissolved in it.   5.     Understand the relationships of acids, bases, and salts.     Key Terms element atom proton neutron electron atomic number mass number periodic table isotopes radioactive decay radioisotopes tracers orbital shell model chemical bonding molecule compound mixture ion ionic bond covalent bond double covalent bond nonpolar covalent bond polar covalent bond hydrogen bond hydrophilic substances hydrophobic substances temperature evaporation solvent
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solute sphere of hydration cohesion hydrogen ion, H+ hydroxide ion, OH– pH scale acid, acidic base, basic salt buffer system   Lecture Outline Impacts, Issues: What Are You Worth? A.    Chemically, how much is a human body really worth? 1.     The body is a collection of elements. 2.     Elements are the building blocks of life. B.    Quantities of elements in the body vary. 1.     Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen are the most abundant of life. 2.     Atoms join together to form molecules. C.    All of the elements in the human body could be bought for $118.63. 2.1      Start with Atoms A.    Atoms are particles that are the building blocks for all substances. 1.     Atoms are composed of three smaller subatomic particles: a.      Protons  (p + ) are part of the atomic nucleus and have a positive charge. Their quantity is  called the atomic number (unique for each element). b.      Neutrons  are also a part of the nucleus; they are neutral.          Protons plus neutrons = atomic mass. c.      Electrons  (e ) have a negative charge. Their quantity is equal to that of the protons. They  move around the nucleus. 2.     Atoms differ from one another based on the number of subatomic particles. 3.     Elements are pure substances, consisting of atoms with the same number of protons. 4.     All elements have isotopes that differ from one another based on the number of neutrons.
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course BIO 03 taught by Professor Garcia during the Fall '08 term at Los Angeles City College.

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CH 2 - CH.2.lifeschemicalbasis Objectives 1.,electrons, 2....

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