CH 7 - CH.7.HOWCELLSRELEASEchemicalenergy Objectives:

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CH. 7. HOW CELLS RELEASE chemical energy     Objectives:     1.     Understand the fundamental nature of energy-releasing pathways to life.            2.     Know the relationship of food molecules to glucose and thus to glycolysis. 3.     Understand the fundamental differences between glycolysis, fermentation, and glycolysis  followed by aerobic respiration.  4.     Know the factors that determine whether an organism will carry on fermentation or  aerobic respiration. Describe how fats and proteins can enter the pathways of energy release. 5.     Know the raw materials and products of each of these processes: glycolysis, fermentation,  the Krebs cycle, and electron transfer phosphorylation. 6.     Reflect on the organization and unity of life and its dependence on the one-way flow of  energy.   Key Terms : ATP anaerobic fermentation pathways aerobic respiration glycolysis pyruvate Krebs cycle NAD+, NADH FAD, FADH 2 electron transfer phosphorylation energy-requiring energy-releasing PGAL substrate-level phosphorylation mitochondrion acetyl-CoA oxaloacetate ATP synthases anaerobic pathways alcoholic fermentation lactate fermentation slow-twitch fast-twitch
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  Lecture Outline :        Impacts, Issues: When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels  A.    Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for releasing the energy stored in foods. 1.     When mitochondria do not work properly, energy releasing molecules are not used  efficiently, causing people to have high metabolic rates but low energy levels. 2.     In Luft’s syndrome, the mitochondria are active in oxygen consumption, but with little ATP  formation to show for it. 3.     In Friedreich’s ataxia, too much iron in the mitochondria causes an accumulation of free  radicals that attack valuable molecules of life. B.    Prokaryotes also make ATP via electron transfer chains built into their membranes. 7.1      Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways A.    ATP is the prime energy carrier for all cells, both autotrophic and heterotrophic. B.    Comparison of the Main Pathways 1.     As the early atmosphere on earth was oxygen poor, early energy-releasing pathways were  likely anaerobic. 2.     Many prokaryotes and protists use fermentation pathways and anaerobic electron transfer to  release small quantities of energy without the use of oxygen. 3.     Aerobic respiration is the main energy-releasing pathway leading to ATP formation in  eukaryotes; it occurs in the mitochondria. 4.     All energy-releasing pathways begin with the glycolysis reactions, which occur in the 
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course BIO 03 taught by Professor Garcia during the Fall '08 term at Los Angeles City College.

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CH 7 - CH.7.HOWCELLSRELEASEchemicalenergy Objectives:

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