CH 13 - CH.13.FromDNAtoProteins Objectives:

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CH.13. From DNA to Proteins    Objectives :     1.     Understand how mRNA transcripts are made from DNA. 2.     Understand how mRNA is translated into a polypeptide chain. 3.     Describe the three types of RNA and the role each serves in transcription and translation. 4.     Understand the nature of mutations and their role in genetic variation.     Key Terms : transcription base sequence messenger RNA ribosomal RNA transfer RNA ribose uracil RNA polymerases promoter mRNA transcripts guanine “cap” poly-A tail introns exons alternative splicing codons genetic code anticodon wobble effect ribosomes initiation elongation termination AUG start codon peptide bond stop codon release factors polysomes gene mutations
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base-pair substitution frameshift mutation insertions deletions transposons mutation rate ionizing radiation nonionizing radiation alkylating agents   Lecture Outline :                   Impacts, Issues: Ricin and Your Ribosomes            A.   Ricin could be a biochemical weapon.                   1.   It is most concentrated in the seeds of the castor oil plant.                   2.   It is very poisonous and is a product of castor oil production.                   3.   Ricin inactivates ribosomes.                           a.   It takes adenine bases off the RNA on the ribosome.                           b.   The ribosome “workbenches” are destroyed and protein synthesis stops; death!            B.   DNA is like a book of instructions in each cell.                   1.   The instructions are written in the alphabet of A, T, G, and C. But merely knowing the  letters                         does not tell us how the genes work.                   2.   DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides twisted together in a double helix.                           a.   All DNA is composed of nucleotide subunits utilizing the same four bases,                                  but the base sequence differs from species to species.                           b.   In replication, the two strands unwind to serve as templates for assembly                                  of new complementary strands.                   3.   Each gene is a linear stretch of DNA nucleotides that codes for the assembly of 
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course BIO 03 taught by Professor Garcia during the Fall '08 term at Los Angeles City College.

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CH 13 - CH.13.FromDNAtoProteins Objectives:

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