CH 33 - CH.33. Objectives Key Terms hydrostatic skeleton...

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CH. 33. Structural Support and Movement Objectives : Key Terms : hydrostatic skeleton exoskeleton endoskeleton pectoral girdle pelvic girdle vertebrae intervertebral disks herniate axial skeleton appendicular skeleton bones osteoblasts osteocytes osteoclasts compact bone spongy bone red marrow yellow marrow bone remodeling calcitonin parathyroid hormone osteoporosis joints ligaments cartilage strain sprain osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis skeletal muscles muscle fiber tendons sarcomeres myofibrils Z band actin filament myosin filament sliding-filament model cross-bridge formation creatine phosphate motor unit muscle twitch tetanus muscle tension isotonically isometrically muscle fatigue muscle cramp
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muscular dystrophies aerobic exercise strength training botulism Lecture Outline : Impacts, Issues: Pumping Up Muscles A.    Androstenedione and creatine are dietary supplements used by athletes and body-builders. 1.     “Andro” can raise testosterone levels for a few hours, but controlled studies did not          shown it to be effective in increasing muscle mass. 2.     Creatine can improve performance during brief, high-intensity exercise. B.    The long-term effects of these chemicals are not known because they have not been tested         by the FDA; they don’t have to be because they are not technically “drugs.”      33.1.  Animal Skeletons A.Skeletons support the body.      1. Animals move by the action of muscles, which need some medium or structural element against           which the force of contraction can be applied      2. There are three main types of skeletons in animals. a.In  hydrostatic skeletons,  the force of contraction is applied against internal fluids; examples are  sea anemones and earthworms. b.In an  exoskeleton,  the force is against rigid external body parts, such as shells or plates; example  arthropods. c.In an  endoskeleton,  the force is applied against rigid internal cartilage and bones; for example,  vertebrates. B.Vertebrate skeletons have evolved.      1. The skeletons of vertebrates must support the body in terrestrial environments as well as  aquatic. a.The pelvic and pectoral girdles are a stable base for the moving fins of fish and are conserved in  four-legged vertebrates for supporting the limbs. b.Additional bones—jaws, ribs, breastbone, and vertebrae—are the legacy of ancient craniates.     2. Vertebrate skeletons are divided into two major portions.
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