Chapter Summary_1

Chapter Summary_1 - 40 INTRODUCTION S U M M A RY COMPUTERS...

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40 INTRODUCTION SUMMARY COMPUTERS IN YOUR LIFE Computers appear almost everywhere in today’s world, and most people need to use a computer or a computerized device frequently on the job, at home, at school, or while on the go. Computer literacy , which is being familiar with basic computer concepts, helps individuals feel comfortable using computers and is a necessary skill for every- one today. Computers abound in today’s homes, schools, workplaces, and other locations. Most students and employees need to use a computer for productivity, research, or other impor- tant tasks. Individuals often use computers at home and/or carry portable computers or devices with them to remain in touch with others or to use Internet resources on a continual basis. Individuals also frequently encounter computers while on the go, such as consumer kiosks and point-of-sale ( POS ) systems. WHAT IS A COMPUTER AND WHAT DOES IT DO? A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts input ; performs processing operations; outputs the results; and provides storage for data, programs, or output when needed. Most computers today also have communications capabilities. This progression of input, processing, output, and storage is sometimes called the information processing cycle. Data is the raw, unorganized facts that are input into the computer to be processed. Data that the computer has processed into a useful form is called information . Data can exist in many forms, representing text , graphics , audio , and video. One of the first calculating devices was the abacus. Early computing devices that pre- date today’s computers include the slide rule , the mechanical calculator , and Dr. Herman Hollerith’s Punch Card Tabulating Machine and Sorter. First-generation computers , such as ENIAC and UNIVAC , were powered by vacuum tubes ; second-generation computers used transistors ; and third-generation computers were possible because of the invention of the integrated circuit ( IC ). Today’s fourth-generation computers use microprocessors and are frequently connected to the Internet and other networks. Some people believe that fifth- generation computers will likely be based on
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course CIS 120 taught by Professor Cone during the Spring '08 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter Summary_1 - 40 INTRODUCTION S U M M A RY COMPUTERS...

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