Localization_KiranYedavalli

Localization_KiranYedavalli - Localization KiranYedavalli 1...

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1 Localization Kiran Yedavalli
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2 Overview Localization: To determine the location of objects. Location Information is necessary/useful for many functions: Location stamps Coherent Signal Processing Tracking and locating objects Cluster formation Efficient Addressing Efficient Querying and Routing
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3 Localization Issues What to localize?: Unknown node Vs. Reference Node Mobile Vs. Static nodes  Node localization Vs. Network Localization Cooperative Vs. Non-cooperative nodes When to localize? Static Vs. Dynamic How well to localize? Coarse grained Vs. Fine Grained Where to localize? Central server (Location Tracking) Vs. Localizing Object (Location  Support) How to localize? What technology to use?: RF, IR, Ultrasound, Combo, UWB RF, etc. What methodology to use?
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4 Node Localization Approaches Coarse-grained Use minimal information Use minimal computation power Fine-grained Gather and use as much information as possible Requires higher computation power Trade-off:  Accuracy Vs. Implementation/Computation/Cost
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5 Coarse-Grained Node Localization Binary Proximity Centroid Geometric Constraints Approximate Point in Triangle (APIT) Identifying Codes (ID Codes) Several techniques provide approximate solutions for node  localization based on the use of minimal information:
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6 Coarse-Grained Node Localization Binary Proximity Location of the closest reference node is the location of the  unknown node. Centroid: Center of gravity of reference nodes in the radio range of the  unknown node.
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7 Geometrics Constraints
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8 Approximate Point In Triangle (APIT)
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9 Identifying Codes (ID Codes)
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10 Fine-Grained Node Localization Ranging-Based Use of Estimation Theory Pattern Matching Many versions Ecolocation Sequence Based Localization
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11 Ranging-Based Ranging: Using signal strengths (RSS) – meter level accuracy Using time difference of Arrival (TDoA) – cm level accuracy over  short distances Position estimation is a Least Squares problem. Find (x,y) such that                           is minimized Angle of arrival techniques can also be used in conjunction with  ranging 2 1 0 ) , ( ) ( - = - n i measured i y x i d d
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12 Time Difference of Arrival
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13 Pattern Matching  E.g.  RADAR Requires pre-training of signal strength measurements at  different locations in the environment Create database Search through the database for the closest matching pattern Highly dependent on the features of the environment
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14 Ecolocation 1. “Unknown node” initiates localization process Sends out a localization request
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2010 for the course EE 652 taught by Professor Bhaskarkrishnamachari during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Localization_KiranYedavalli - Localization KiranYedavalli 1...

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