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7Supp%207%20Water%20in%20subsurface

7Supp%207%20Water%20in%20subsurface - HYDROGEOLOGY LECTURE...

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H YDROGEOLOGY L ECTURE N OTES (S PRING 2004). DOC P RINTED ON 8/2/2005 5 Distribution of Water in the Subsurface Geologic materials (i.e., rock, soil, and sediment) always have some amount of empty space in them. This empty space is called the pore space , and the percentage of pore space by volume in a rock or sediment is called the porosity 1 . Within all naturally-occurring geologic units, the pore space always contains some amount of moisture. Below the surface of the Earth, in the soil and upper layers of rock, the sediments and rock contain moisture; however, not all of the pore space is full (i.e. there is both air and moisture within the pore spaces). Just below the surface, the amount of moisture is small, and the amount of moisture tends to increase with depth. Eventually, the amount of moisture becomes so great that the pore space is completely filled with water and the soil or sediment is saturated (Figure 1-4). Figure 1-4. Cross-section showing the distribution of water in the shallow subsurface (© Uliana, 2001) 1 Several terms, like porosity, permeability, and aquifer, will be introduced in this chapter and defined in a general way; be aware that these terms will be discussed in much more detail in later chapters.
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